1. Since most text messaging is not a secure form of communication, it raises HIPAA concerns if any protected health information is included in the text message. There is the possibility of a data breach in the transmission of the text message, as well as in the event of a lost or stolen phone.
2. Relevant information about a patient may be omitted from the patient’s medical chart if it is communicated via text message. Text messages are difficult to print or archive, resulting in the information being lost or deleted. This can have adverse consequences in the patient’s care due failure to communicate important information regarding the patient to everyone who needs the information.
3. Important evidence may be lost, resulting in adverse consequences in the event of a lawsuit. Any time a lawsuit is anticipated, all relevant evidence must be preserved, including text messages. However, since the messages reside on individual employees’ phones, they may be omitted from the document preservation efforts, or accidentally (or intentionally) deleted by the employee. Such loss of evidence could result in the court’s imposition of an “adverse inference,” meaning that the jury must determine that lost evidence would have been adverse to the health care facility (even if that is not true).
The safest course is to ban text messaging in a health care setting. Health care facilities which allow the use of text messaging should implement policies and procedures to ensure that they avoid these problems.
On January 14, 2015, the U.S. DHHS Inspector General’s Office (the “OIG”) released a report (OEI-02-14-00070) entitled “Medicare Hospices Have Financial Incentives to Provide Care in Assisted Living Facilities.”
The report is significant as a road map to the issues the OIG has been concerned with relating to Medicare hospice services provided to beneficiaries in assisted living and other institutional settings. The OIG continues to be concerned with long length of stay patients, patients with diagnoses of ill-defined conditions, such as failure to thrive or unspecified debility, and its perception of the inappropriate incentives that may exist with payments for services relating to these types of patients.
The OIG advises that the conclusions of the report raise concern about the financial incentives that might be created by the current Medicare hospice payment system and the potential for hospices to target beneficiaries in ALFs because they may offer the hospices the greatest financial gain.
The report discusses several significant findings, these findings include: Continue reading OIG – Medicare Hospices Have Financial Incentives to Provide Care in Assisted Living Facilities
A recent settlement between Mayo Collaborative Services d/b/a Mayo Medical Laboratories (“MML”) and Mayo Clinic (together with MML, “Mayo”) and a former Mayo executive, Dr. Franklin Cockerill, reveals the potential legal issues that may arise when health care executives seek new employment and the high stakes litigation that may ensue-regardless of which party may or may not be at fault.
As set forth in Mayo’s complaint, Dr. Cockerill was a former senior officer and director of MML and Chair of the Mayo Clinic Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, where he managed several thousand medical professionals handling laboratory testing and intellectual property development for Mayo and MML. According to Mayo’s complaint, as a result of Dr. Cockerill’s various positions he had first-hand knowledge of confidential strategic, business, marketing, sales, pricing, and data management information from MML and Mayo. Eventually, Dr. Cockerill retired and obtained employment with a Mayo competitor.
Continue reading Mayo Lawsuit Against Former Exec Raises Numerous Health Care and Business Litigation Issues
On December 23, 2014, the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania logged another frustrating mile down the confused and confusing road of property tax exemption for purely public charities. In Fayette Resources, Inc. v. Fayette County Board of Assessment Appeals, the Court overturned a lower court finding that an operator of group homes for intellectually disabled adults satisfied the requirements for tax exemption as a “purely public charity.” The Commonwealth Court held that Fayette Resources failed to show that it satisfied the second requirement of the so-called HUP test (declared in Hospital Utilization Project v. Commonwealth, 487 A.2d 1306 (Pa. 1985)) — that it donate or render gratuitously a substantial portion of its services.
While this opinion may be viewed simply as Fayette Resources failing to make an adequate record below, the case also illustrates the confusion created by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court’s decision in the 2012 Mesivtah case, Mesivtah Eitz Chaim of Bobov, Inc. v. Pike County Board of Assessment Appeals, 44 A.3d 3 (Pa. 2012), which held that non-profit entities must satisfy both the statutory requirements of the Purely Public Charity Act (“Charity Act”), codified at 10 P.S. 371-385, and the court-established HUP test. Continue reading Real Estate Tax Exemption Issue Muddied Again
It is all about revenue!
After a banner year for health stocks and private equity investors, it is possible that the Republican controlled Congress could create problems for new emerging health care technologies and new health care delivery models. The new Congress is looking at every turn to limit the impact of the Affordable Care Act (“the Act”). While there is strong desire to repeal the act, the conventional wisdom is a strategy of “death by a thousand cuts” will be more successful. However, every time there is a change in the law by regulation, executive order, legislation or the Supreme Court, the action by its very nature creates change and uncertainty in the healthcare marketplace. Investors need be aware of the outcome of legal and legislative actions which would substantially reduce the number of people covered by health insurance. These activities could negatively impact revenue projections for any new business dependent upon health insurance reimbursement or the volume of health care transactions. For example, the Republican Congress could change the definition of full time from 30 to 40 hours and eliminate a significant number of employees to be covered by private insurance. Another activity could be a decision in favor of the plaintiff by the U.S. Supreme Court in King v. Burwell invalidating the tax subsidies for enrollees in federal assisted exchanges. More than half the states could be impacted. The outcome of this case combined with the change in the full time definition could significantly impact providers’ revenue especially in those states where Medicaid has not been expanded. The combination of the declining tax subsidies and reduced Medicaid coverage in states that did not opt for expanded Medicaid coverage could dampen profit projections and investors returns. Investors need to be very careful about the revenue assumptions that entrepreneurs embed in their pro formas. A few new actions could make the profits disappear.
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is continuing its efforts to reduce the national prevalence of antipsychotic drug use in long-stay nursing home residents. Its initial goal of a 15.1% reduction in antipsychotic drug use was met, so CMS now seeks to reduce antipsychotic drugs by 25% by the end of 2015 and 30% by the end of 2016. The national average of antipsychotic drug prevalence was 19.8% in early 2014.
CMS has been publishing each facility’s antipsychotic drug use on the Nursing Home Compare web site. Now in 2015, as further incentive to nursing homes, CMS will use antipsychotic drug use as a factor in calculating each facility’s Five-Star Rating. A low Five-Star Rating can have a direct impact on a facility’s census and profitability.
Nursing homes need to develop strategies to reduce antipsychotic drug use. They cannot depend upon physicians to change the drug orders; they need to partner with physicians to develop creative approaches for treatment. Each resident should be thoroughly evaluated to determine the root cause of behaviors that trigger the use of antipsychotic drugs. Frequently, the undesirable behaviors are caused by an unmet need. Once the need or cause is determined, individualized, person-centered approaches can be developed to prevent or respond to the behaviors. This is the beginning of a new year, now is the time to start some new interventions to reduce antipsychotic drug use and enhance your Five-Star Rating.
A recent decision in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York provides fair warning to qui tam relators who assert erroneous claims under the False Claims Act (“FCA”) that they could be hit with legal fees and expenses pursuant to 31 U.S.C. § 3730, which permits such an award “upon a finding that the . . . claims were objectively frivolous, irrespective of plaintiff’s subjective intent.” Mikes v. Straus, 274 F.3d 687, 705 (2d Cir. 2001).
On December 1, 2014, in U.S., et al., ex rel. Fox Rx, Inc., 1:12-cv-00275, defendant Managed Health Care Associates Long Term Care Network, Inc. (“MHA”), was awarded attorneys’ fees and expenses because the relator’s, Fox Rx, Inc.’ (“Fox”), claim that MHA, which negotiates reimbursement rates, among other things, on behalf of a network of pharmacies, allegedly (i) failed to substitute generic drugs for named brand drugs, and (ii) dispensed drugs beyond their termination date, was objectively frivolous given that the plain language of the very agreement Fox attached to its second amended complaint demonstrated that MHA did not itself dispense drugs, and exercised no control or supervision of its network pharmacies’ dispensing. Continue reading Fees and Costs Awarded to False Claims Act Defendant
On January 2, 2015, the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California threw out claims that Walgreens pharmacy violated the federal and California false claims acts on the basis that the plaintiff failed to meet the applicable stringent pleading requirements.
In Irwin v. Walgreens, 2:13-cv-08473, a whistleblower/Relator contended that Walgreens cheated Medicare and Medi-Cal out of millions of dollars by establishing schemes to bill those government healthcare programs for prescriptions that were never picked up by patients, rather than restocking the drugs and reversing any associated charges to the government payers. Among other things, the complaint asserted that, as demonstrated by the fact that they were not picked up by the patients, the prescriptions were not medically necessary, and therefore should not have been billed. The complaint sought money damages, including a penalty of up to $11,000 for each violation and treble damages. In September 2014, the government declined to intervene in the qui tam action. Continue reading Another Win for a False Claims Act Defendant
Although whistleblowers benefit from strong public policies protecting the means by which they assert and support their False Claims Act (FCA) allegations, a recent decision highlights a possible counterclaim theory that empowers defendants to assert claims against the whistleblower. In U.S. ex rel. Notorfransesco v. Surgical Monitoring Association, Inc. et al., (E.D. Pa.), the whistleblower was a former employee of the defendant, and the defendant asserted a counterclaim based on the former employee’s taking and disseminating confidential information from the former employer, including using that information in the qui tam complaint. The counterclaim asserted breach of contract, implied contract and promissory estoppel theories.
The district court denied the whistleblower’s motion to dismiss the counterclaim, holding that the counterclaim raised claims that were independent of the FCA allegations and therefore were not against public policy. The court also held that the defendant had plausibly asserted that it could be entitled to injunctive relief and damages. Continue reading False Claims Act Defendants May Have Possible Counterclaims Against Whistleblowers
One arrow in the quiver for healthcare providers sued for violations of false claims and anti-kickback statutes is pressing for discovery from the whistleblower/relator, including a deposition of the relator. The failure of the whistleblower to comply with the discovery obligations could result in meaningful sanctions, including dismissal.
In Guthrie v. A Plus Home Health Care, Inc. et al, 0:12-cv-60629-WPD (S.D. FL), the relator, William Guthrie, sued a home health care provider, its seven doctors, and their spouses, alleging that the doctors and their spouses implemented a fraudulent scheme of compensation and referral payments resulting in violations of the False Claims Act, the Stark Act, and the federal Anti-Kickback Statute. Continue reading False Claims and Anti-Kickback Defendants Should Insist on Discovery from the Whistleblower/Relator