In this post we will be looking at sustainability-linked loan principles and their application to a recent sustainability-linked private placement by Trafigura Funding S.A. (“Trafigura”), a subsidiary of Trafigura Group Pte. Ltd., a market leader in the global commodities industry. Trafigura’s private placement of $203.5 million of Senior Guaranteed Sustainability-Linked Notes is believed to be the largest sustainability-linked financing on record in the US Private Placement market to date. Duane Morris previously represented Trafigura in its 2020 private placement of Senior Guaranteed Notes to institutional investors in the United States.
The two primary sustainability products in the loan market are green loans and sustainability-linked loans. The Loan Syndications and Trading Association (“LSTA”), Loan Market Association (“LMA”) and Asia Pacific Loan Market Association (“APLMA”) originally established standards for these products (called the “Green Loan Principles” (“GLP”) and “Sustainability Linked Loan Principles” (“SLLP”)) in 2018 and 2019 respectively. On 5 May 2020 the LSTA, LMA and APLMA published guidelines that outline considerations for the market in structuring such transactions, as detailed in our alert here.
The key element of a green loan is that the proceeds are used for “green” purposes. A sustainability-linked loan can be any type of debt financing where a company is economically incentivized to achieve sustainability objectives. Unlike a green loan, the proceeds of a sustainability-linked loan can be used for general corporate purposes. The objectives are measured using sustainability performance targets (“SPTs”) that include key performance indicators (“KPIs”) and other metrics to measure improvement. The SLLP guidelines provide examples of SPTs with categories including energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy, water consumption and biodiversity.
The GLP and SLLP guidelines are increasingly being applied more widely than the loan market, with private placement issuers utilizing the guidelines for green or sustainable private placements. These products are not only intended for “green” companies; any company can access the green or sustainability loan market provided the transaction is structured in the right way. This means a broad range of industries can utilize the guidelines in a transaction provided there is an appropriate commitment to green projects or sustainability objectives.
Components of a Sustainability-Linked Private Placement
The SLLP guidelines outline four components of a sustainability-linked transaction that we will illustrate the practical application of with reference to the recent sustainability-linked private placement by Trafigura. These components are:
1. Relationship to the company’s overall sustainability strategy
2. Target Setting
1. Relationship to the Company’s Overall Sustainability Strategy
As sustainability-linked private placements are intended to improve a company’s existing sustainability strategy, there needs to be 1) a sustainability strategy in place and 2) a link between the sustainability strategy and the SPTs the company is seeking to achieve. Trafigura selected three KPIs in relation to its operations: reducing greenhouse gas emissions, developing its renewable energy portfolio and bringing its procurement program in line with international sustainability standards.
The SLLT guidelines also encourage companies to disclose sustainability standards or certifications to which they are seeking to conform. For example, Trafigura outlined its intention for full alignment of the business with the ISO standard 20400:2017, an international standard for sustainable procurement.
2. Target Setting
The SPTs need to be “ambitious and meaningful” to the company’s business. For Trafigura, the KPI for reducing greenhouse gas emissions is the same target as set in the company’s sustainability-linked revolving credit facility that closed earlier this year. This KPI will measure Trafigura’s performance in reducing scope one and two emissions by 30% by 2023 (compared to 2020 levels) as set out in its 2020 Responsibility Report.
The SLLP guidelines suggest SPTs should be determined using internal or external specialists so that they are “fit for purpose” with respect to the company’s business and industry. In order to set the KPI aligning Trafigura’s procurement program with international standards, an independent sustainability verifier, ERM Certification and Verification Services (“ERM CVS”), conducted a gap assessment of Trafigura’s management system framework against the ISO standards.
The SPTs and calculation methodologies are communicated between the company and the investors. Price incentives are linked to the performance of the company in achieving the pre-determined SPTs. These price incentives could be an upwards interest rate adjustment if an SPT is not met, an downward interest rate adjustment if SPTs are met, or a two-way pricing structure utilizing upward and downward interest rate adjustments depending on performance.
The Trafigura sustainability-linked private placement is structured with only an upward interest rate adjustment if an SPT is not met. The interest rate adjustment is structured in this way to work around any potential ERISA Final Rule issue, as a downwards adjustment in interest rate based on meeting the targets could be interpreted as a sacrifice of return on investment for a non-pecuniary goal. Although the Department of Labor has subsequently issued a notice it will not enforce the Final Rule, until further guidance is published an ERISA fiduciary must only consider pecuniary factors when making investments.
A company will need to report up-to-date data in relation to SPTs. The SLLP guidelines suggest reporting should be on an annual basis at a minimum. Companies and investors may seek external opinions and reports with respect to methodologies and assumptions used in reporting.
In Trafigura, ERM CVS will undertake an assessment of the KPI performance on the relevant assessment date each year. The results will form the basis of the KPI report, produced and verified by ERM CVS which details performance with respect to the SPTs. The report is attached to a compliance certificate signed by Trafigura and delivered to the investors each year, stating whether SPTs have been achieved for that period.
The SLLP guidelines suggest external review and verification is to be negotiated on a transaction by transaction basis between the company and the investors. External review is strongly recommended where information regarding SPTs is not publicly available. The SLLP guidelines strongly recommend verification by an auditor, environmental consultant or rating agency. Trafigura engaged ERM CVS to review and report on KPIs and SPT compliance for each relevant period.
Although sustainability-linked products originate in the loan market, particularly among European lenders, interest from issuers and investors in the capital markets is increasing as ESG issues move back up the public agenda as the impact of COVID-19 begins to recede. Moreover, application of the SLLP guidelines allow issuers across a broad range of industries to access capital from investors who are demonstrating growing support for businesses that incorporate sustainability into their business operations. Trafigura’s recent US private placement is an indication that US institutional investors are also supporting issuers committing to sustainability targets.
If you have any questions about this post, please contact Drew D. Salvest, Natalie A. Stewart, Rebecca Green any of the attorneys in our Banking and Finance Industry Group or the attorney in the firm with whom you in regular contact.