The Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (the “2018 Farm Bill”), signed into law on December 20, 2018, altered the federal government’s treatment of hemp in a number of ways. The 2018 Farm Bill expanded the definition of “hemp” to include, explicitly, derivatives, extracts and cannabinoids, and removed hemp from the definition of federally unlawful marijuana under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). See 2018 Farm Bill, Pub. L. No. 115-334 §§ 10113, 12619, 132 Stat. 4490. Notably, the 2018 Farm Bill also explicitly permitted the interstate transportation of hemp: “No State or Indian Tribe shall prohibit the transportation or shipment of hemp or hemp products produced in accordance with subtitle G of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (as added by section 10113).” Id. at § 10114.
Subtitle G, for its part, provides that “[n]othing in this section prohibits the production of hemp in a State or the territory of an Indian tribe—(1) for which a State or Tribal plan is not approved under this section, if the production of hemp is in accordance with section 297C or other Federal laws (including regulations).” Id. at § 10113 (emphasis added). This final clause, “or other Federal laws,” is significant because the Agriculture Act of 2014 (the “2014 Farm Bill”) is also a “federal law,” and to date approximately 40 states have instituted industrial hemp programs pursuant to the 2014 Farm Bill. Under the language of the 2018 Farm Bill, then, states may not interfere with the interstate transportation of hemp produced in accordance with either the 2014 Farm Bill or—once regulations are implemented and state hemp programs are approved—the 2018 Farm Bill.
Notwithstanding the language of the 2018 Farm Bill, the absence of federal regulations implementing the new law and sanctioning state hemp programs revised pursuant to the 2018 Farm Bill has caused significant confusion regarding the true impact of the act.