Recently, the Illinois Supreme Court considered the consequences of violating the Biometric Information Privacy Act (“Act”). The Act has been on the books for ten years, and during that time, the use of biometric data, such as finger prints, voice prints, or facial recognition, has grown by leaps and bounds. It is possible to unlock an iPhone merely by looking at it—using facial geometry.
As health care facilities move to biometric methods of identifying staff or clients, they will need to consider the ramifications of doing so. The Act requires entities that collect biometric data to first obtain informed consent, in writing, by the individual or their representative. In addition, the entity must have a policy and procedure for destroying the biometric data in accordance with the Act.
According to the Supreme Court, failure to abide by these procedures causes damage to the person whose biometric data was gathered. As a result, the entity can face liability in the amount of $1,000 to $5,000 per violation, or actual damages, plus attorneys’ fees. Considering the real risk of identity theft in this digital age, actual damages could easily exceed the statutory amounts.
On January 13, 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) sent a Memorandum (“Memo”) to State survey agency directors encouraging long-term care providers to “consider cybersecurity when developing or reviewing their emergency preparedness plans.” The Memo was a follow-up to the CMS long-term care emergency preparedness rule published in the Federal Register on September 16, 2016: “Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Emergency Preparedness Requirements for Medicare and Medicaid Participating Providers and Suppliers.” Under that final rule, long-term care facilities were held to additional standards, including requirements to have emergency and standby power systems in place. Nursing homes were also required to create plans regarding missing residents that could be activated regardless of whether the facility has activated its full-scale emergency plan. The rule was spurred on by recent flooding in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and other emergency disasters, such as Hurricane Sandy and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, according to CMS.
Whether State surveyors will actually enforce lack of cybersecurity plans for emergency preparedness as violations remains to be seen from this Memo. But certainly, a State survey agency could impose deficiencies for failure to have a proper cybersecurity plan and/or a proper cybersecurity back‑up plan as part of a facility’s emergency preparedness going forward. It is not clear why CMS decided to send this encouragement Memo three months after the Final Rule on emergency preparedness, but it likely has something to do with the fact that 2016 was a banner year for HIPAA privacy infractions and HIPAA enforcement by the Office for Civil Rights (“OCR”), the entity responsible for HIPAA compliance. In 2016, payouts for HIPAA violations skyrocketed to record heights of $23.51 million from OCR enforcers against health care providers. That number was triple the previous record of almost $7.94 million in payouts in 2014, followed by $6.19 million in payouts in 2015.
Continue reading Cybersecurity and Emergency Preparedness for Long-Term Care
The 2013 HIPAA Amendments directly apply to healthcare providers, plans and clearinghouses as “covered entities,” as well as their subcontractors and vendors as “business associates” (including their downstream subcontractors and agents). However, it is not just covered entities and business associates that need to understand the 2013 Amendments. Advertisers, data aggregators, market researchers and others that want access to PHI, even data that appear to be de-identified, will be impacted.
Continue reading HIPAA Marketing and Sale Provisions: Legal Potholes for Providers, Payors, Advertisers, Data Aggregators, Market Researchers and Others
Employers that sponsor group health plans for their employees should pay careful attention to the newly announced final omnibus rule amending HIPAA in accordance with the HITECH Act of 2009. This final rule under the HITECH Act, issued on January 17, 2013, impacts group health plans in two significant ways. Group health plan sponsors should act now to make changes to existing plan documents, including HIPAA procedures and business associate agreements, in response to the Final Rule.
Click here for an overview of how HIPAA generally applies in the context of employer-sponsored group health plans and these significant changes impacting group health plans.
Continue reading Employers Take Note: Final HIPAA Rules Mandate New Obligations for Group Health Plans
The HIPAA Rules require that when a HIPAA-covered entity (a provider, plan or clearinghouse) or a business associate of a covered entity uses or discloses protected health information (“PHI”), or when it requests PHI from another covered entity or business associate, the covered entity or business associate must make “reasonable efforts to limit protected health information to the minimum necessary to accomplish the intended purpose of the use, disclosure, or request.”
Click here to read more about the HIPAA “minimum necessary” standard—one of the most essential, yet vague, aspects of the HIPAA Rules.
Continue reading HIPAA Minimum Necessary Standard Should Be Key Component of Policies and Procedures, Now More Than Ever
The 2013 Amendments include a number of sweeping changes to the HIPAA Rules, including the expansion of the definition of a business associate to include their subcontractors that handle protected health information (“PHI”); a lower threshold for determining whether a breach has occurred for reporting purposes; and restrictions on “marketing” activities and the “sale” of PHI.
Click here to read this Overview Summary of the 2013 Amendments. Duane Morris is issuing a series of Alerts on the 2013 Amendments. Please see the in-depth Alerts already distributed by the firm on changes under the 2013 Amendments to the definition of a business associate and changes to the breach notification requirements. We will continue to issue Alerts on discrete HIPAA topics.
One of the most significant changes in the final HIPAA amendments is the Breach Notification Rule, which modifies and clarifies the definition of “breach” and the risk-assessment approach required for breach notification. In light of this heightened standard, covered entities, business associates and downstream contractors should consider carefully reviewing their breach notification policies and procedures, training materials and contractual arrangements in an effort to avoid potential liability under the Breach Notification Rule.
Click here for more information on the most significant changes to the Breach Notification Rule.
Among the most significant changes of the Final HIPAA amendments are the provisions that extend the Privacy and Security Rules’ stringent compliance obligations to business associates (BA) and expand the definition of BAs to include subcontractors of BAs. Why the changes? The HITECH Act of 2009 specifically extends direct liability to BAs and expands the list of obligations for BAs. The Department of Health & Human Services extends BA obligations even further to ensure the privacy and security of all PHI throughout the HIPAA ecosystem.
Click here to read a summary of the key provisions under the 2013 amendments, as well as factors that may be worthwhile for covered entities and business associates to consider in light of these amendments.
On January 17, 2013 the federal Department of Health & Human Services (“HHS”) announced a final omnibus rule that details amendments to the privacy, security, data breach and enforcement rules under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”). The 2013 HIPAA Amendments (which, with commentary from HHS, weighs in at 563 pages) are closely based on statutory changes under the HITECH Act of 2009, and were previewed in proposed and interim rules issued by HHS several years ago. Continue reading HHS (Finally) Announces The HIPAA/HITECH Amendments
We live in the data age where every day a new technology is announced in business- and consumer-oriented ecommerce and mobile health (mhealth). In response, in recent years, federal and state legislators have enacted strict data privacy and security laws, such as HIPAA, COPPA, and Gramm-Leach-Bliley, to protect data whether in electronic (IT) or physical form. This data is known as protected health information under HIPAA and personally identifiable information under other statutes. New federal and state laws also mandate comprehensive data breach responses, including notifications to individuals whose PHI or PII was breached and some agencies and state attorneys general. The shared premise behind these laws is that the public expects the highest standard of data protection from businesses and government. (Whether or not this is true – after all we regularly give our credit card numbers to anonymous persons over the phone – is a subject for another day…)
Continue reading Warning: If You Handle Protected Health Information (PHI) or Personally Identifiable Information (PII), Buy Data Breach and Security Incident Insurance!