Deliveroo IPO raises questions around worker rights and dual class share structures


Several fund managers have elected not to participate in Deliveroo Holdings plc’s (Deliveroo) impending initial public offering (IPO), with concerns over the company’s treatment of workers and the dual class share structure. The roster includes Legal and General Investment Management, which is the UK’s largest fund manager with £1.3tn of assets under management.  Similarly, M&G, Aberdeen Standard Investments and Aviva Investors have told the Financial Times that they too will “shun” the listing (“Legal and General joins investors shunning Deliveroo IPO”, Financial Times, 25 March 2020).


Deliveroo is a popular online food delivery company founded in London.  Customers use an app or website to order food from grocers, local restaurants or ‘ghost kitchens’ and the food is delivered by self-employed bicycle or motorcycle couriers.  Revenue is generated by charging fees to both restaurants and customers.

Continue reading “Deliveroo IPO raises questions around worker rights and dual class share structures”

Potential FTC Priorities Under the Biden Administration

On February 10, 2021, Acting FTC Chairwoman Slaughter delivered her keynote address “Protecting Consumer Privacy” at the Future of Privacy Forum. Chairwoman Slaughter emphasized the importance of transparent notice to consumer surrounding privacy practices, noting that it allows consumers the “dignity of knowing what is happening.”

Chairwoman Slaughter outlined the following areas of focus for FTC enforcement in 2021:

  1. Protecting privacy during the pandemic, especially in the ed-tech world, where Slaughter  emphasized the importance of children’s privacy, and health applications , including tele-health and contact tracing apps, where she discussed the importance of application of the Health Breach Notification Rule to FTC enforcement actions;
  2. Conducting a follow up study on broad band service providers’ privacy practices, continuing the work the FTC began in 2019; and
  3. Racial Equity, and the targeting of vulnerable populations by digital services, facial recognition technologies, location data, and algorithmic discrimination.

Chairwoman Slaughter also noted the importance of the FTC pursuing all methods of relief at its disposal in its enforcement actions, including disgorgement of not only monetary gains, but other benefits (like algorithms developed) from “ill gotten data.”

Read Chairwoman Slaughter’s full remarks here:

Can Technology Companies Easily Get an H-1B Specialty Occupation Worker Visa for Computer Programmer or Related Occupations?

Well, the answer is maybe, as navigating the US immigration landscape is never easy.  IT companies should pursue H-1B visas for their qualified computer related positions, as on February 3, 2021, the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS) rescinded its Dec. 22, 2000 ‘Guidance Memo on H-1B computer related positions,’ according to which a Computer Programmer position did not qualify for the most common professional worker H-1B visa.  In recent years, USCIS has been reviewing H-1B petitions for computer related positions under heightened scrutiny, often challenging the bachelor’s degree requirement, issuing extensive Requests for Evidence or  denials.  So when last week, the USCIS rescinded its 2000 Memo and noted that further guidance would be forthcoming, IT companies and their immigration attorneys became optimistic and excited.

The agency action results from a December 16, 2020 decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit in Innova Solutions, Inc. v. Baran,  where the court overturned USCIS’ denial of an H-1B nonimmigrant visa petition for a Computer Programmer and found the denial was arbitrary and capricious. That decision was one of the first Appeals Court decisions to rule in favor of the H-1B IT petitioner.  In Innova, the USCIS denied the petition stating that Innova failed to show that the position of Computer Programmer is a specialty occupation (i.e one that requires a bachelor’s degree in a related field as a minimum educational requirement for entry).  USCIS relied heavily on the Department of Labor’s Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH), which states that “[m]ost computer programmers have a bachelor’s degree,” and that a bachelor’s degree is the “[t]ypical level of education that most” computer programmers need”

The Ninth Circuit disagreed and compared the OOH statements that “[m]ost computer programmers have a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a related subject” and a bachelor’s degree is the “[t]ypical level of education that most workers need to enter” with the computer programmer occupation to the regulatory language at 8 C.F.R. 214.2(h)(4)(iii)(A), which requires that a bachelor’s degree “normally” the minimum education required for the occupation.  Given the agreement between the two requirements, the court found that USCIS’s denial of the visa based on the OOH criteria was arbitrary and capricious, stating that “there is no “rational connection” between the only source USCIS cited, which indicated most computer programmers have a bachelor’s degree and that a bachelor’s degree is typically needed, and USCIS’s decision that a bachelor’s degree is not normally required”. Id. at *9.

As such, the Innova Solutions decision is a refreshing rebuttal to USCIS’s longstanding practice of challenging computer programming on specialty occupation grounds.  It is also a reminder to the USCIS that the OOH may not be used as a Holy Grail to deny H-1B petitions that are based on well-reasoned arguments by the petitioner.  So should IT companies file H-1B petitions for their workers in computer positions? The answer is yes, with the assistance of competent immigration counsel.


Staying Ahead of Rampant Cyber-Attacks

Since the advent of the most rudimentary technology, criminal activity has followed. And in more recent times, the internet certainly has been no stranger to criminal enterprises. Indeed, governmental entities, companies and individuals are falling victim to all sorts of cyber-crimes on a constant basis. A look at just one criminal target drives home the rampant nature of online attacks.

Brace yourself for this – the City of London Corporation suffered almost one million cyber-attacks monthly for the first quarter of 2019, based on information obtained by Centrify as reported by info That indisputably is a phenomenal number of attacks on the local authority which oversees capital housing for a good portion of the financial center in London. Continue reading “Staying Ahead of Rampant Cyber-Attacks”

Another State Passes Law to Protect Consumer Data

States are taking online consumer protection into their own hands given a perceived lack of sufficient protection at the federal level. Maine now has jumped in.

Indeed, Janet Mills, the Governor of Maine, just signed into law arguably one of the strongest privacy bills in the country. This law, called the Act to Protect the Privacy of Online Consumer Information and which goes into effect on July 1, prohibits internet service providers from using, selling, or distributing data from consumers without obtaining their consent. And, according to The Hill, this new state law bars internet service providers from refusing to serve consumers, penalizing consumers or offering them discounts to seek to gain their permission to sell their data.

Consumer Affairs and Privacy

This bold step by Maine follows in the footsteps of California, a state which passed a complicated online privacy law last year. That law has been both applauded by privacy activists and criticized in certain respects by the tech industry.

At first blush, the new Maine law may be even more robust than the California law. The Maine law is opt-in in nature, requiring explicit consent from consumers before internet service providers can sell their data. The California law is opt-out in effect, making consumers affirmatively request that their data not be sold. Continue reading “Another State Passes Law to Protect Consumer Data”

Too Much Screen Time Adversely Impacting Teenagers?

We keep hearing about how teenagers have gone inward. They spend more and more time staring into their televisions, computers and handheld devices. Indeed, they can be online practically anywhere, anytime. We have been told that the failure of teens to engage as much in the real world around them is having negative affects, with increasing rates of depression and anxiety, as well as heightened risks of self harm and harm inflicted on others.

But are the reported risks and impacts of increased screen time by teenagers actually based in fact? Not so much, according to a recent study by Oxford University in the journal Psychological Science and as reported by The Guardian. The bottom line conclusion of the study is that screen time has very little correlation to the psychological well-being of teenagers. Surprised? Read on. Continue reading “Too Much Screen Time Adversely Impacting Teenagers?”

Involuntary Technological Encroachment

Once upon a time, the advent of the radio was considered a major advancement, and families in the evenings would huddle together and listen to favorite radio shows. Not that much later, television became the big thing. And with TV, it was easy to sit passively by as a couch potato watching one show after another.

Indeed, there is the following joke: A man says to his wife, “Honey, if I ever became a vegetable, please pull the plug.” So, the wife walks past her husband on the couch over to the television set and pulls its plug from the wall electrical socket.

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Will California Consumers Share in Wealth From Their Online Data?

Technology companies collect all sorts of data on their users. The terms of service located on their web sites spell out for users the types of data collected and how that data will be used. The data collected from users is extremely useful for tech companies in terms of how to market to them further, and accordingly, that data has tremendous economic value.

Along comes the Governor of California, Gavin Newsom, who according to, has announced that California consumers should share in the billions of dollars that tech companies make on personal data they collect. Indeed, Governor Newsom reportedly has asked his aides to come up with a proposal for what has been referred to as a “data dividend” for California residents. However, it is not clear whether he envisions a tax on tech companies, refunds to users, or some other idea.

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Stealing Your Online Face – Online Truth Suffers Another Blow

What is “real” and what is “fake” in terms of online content we review? This has become a major, if not dominant, concern with respect to the reliability of what we see on the internet. Are suggested “facts” really true? Do we really know the actual source of material posted on the internet?

And now our worry in this area should be heightened by the development of face-swapping videos. For example, FakeApp can be utilized to create altered videos by inserting faces of people into these videos, as reported in detail by Business Insider. This face-swapping technique has been used by many people just for fun. As an example, Nicholas Cage’s image was inserted to have him becoming Lois Lane in a Superman movie (perhaps Nicholas Cage was not amused).  Continue reading “Stealing Your Online Face – Online Truth Suffers Another Blow”