违约金在英美法合同中有效吗?

我们经常在中国法管辖的合同中看到违约金/罚金这样的条款,常常规定如果合同一方不如约履行合同,则需要支付一定数额的违约金给对方。根据我国《合同法》规定,我国对于损害赔偿的范围采纳的是可预见性标准,同样该标准也适用于违约金条款,即违约金不仅可以包括因违约造成的实际损失,还可以包括合同履行后的可得利益。

但是违约金的适用有一定的限制,一般来说合同违约金的上限是不超过实际损失的30%,但是过高或者过低都是可以请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以适当减少或者增加的。由于这项要求,大部分中国法合同都会在合同中约定相当可观的违约金,因为即使约定的过高,也可以在经过法院或者仲裁机构调整后予以执行,还可以避免在出现违约情况后再来计算损害赔偿数额。而且高额的违约金,也会对合同各方有一定的震慑作用,使得合同各方因忌惮高额的违约金而有积极履行合同的动力。

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新加坡科技准证(Tech Pass)正式启动

早于去年年末,新加坡经济发展局就曾宣布将于今年推出一种新型准证Tech Pass,旨在吸引全球顶尖科技人才前往新加坡,以促进新加坡科技态系统的发展,进一步巩固新加坡作为区域科技枢纽的领先地位。近期,新加坡经济发展局正式启动了Tech Pass,申请人已经可以在其官网上提交申请了。

哪些人可以申请科技准证?

申请人不必必须受雇于新加坡企业,其可以是新加坡企业的雇员,也可以直接在新加坡进行创业、做投资人、担任董事等。申请人只要满足以下三项条件中的两项就可以申请科技准证。当前持有工作准证(Employment Pass)、 个人化就业准证(Personalized Employment Pass)等准证的人员,若在符合条件的情况下亦可以申请更换其准证为科技准证。

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新加坡可变动资本公司(VCC) 特点与优势

自2020年1月新加坡金融管理局(简称“金管局”)与会计与企业管制局(简称“ACRA“)联合声明,正式推出可变动资本公司(VCC)框架以来截止10月份,已有近乎于160多家VCC如雨后春笋般涌现。 金融管理局公布的《2019新加坡资产管理调查》报告显示,新加坡在2019年资产管理规模年比增长15.7%,达到2.9万亿美元。其中包括传统领域资产(如股票与债券)以及另类资产(私募股权,风险创投等)。新加坡一直以安全稳定的经济、较宽松的监管以及较低的公司税率等来保持其投资吸引力;新 VCC 框架将为投资基金在新加坡的注册和营运提供更大的灵活度。有望鼓励更多基金经理和投资基金产品以新加坡为据点,提升新加坡作为全球投资基金中心的地位。

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新加坡国会已通过付款服务(修正)法案 防范洗黑钱与恐怖融资行为以及加强对数码支付代币供应商的管制

新加坡国会于2021年1月4号通过《付款服务(修正)法案》

修正案在2019年的法案基础上,在 “反洗黑钱与反恐怖融资”,“加强对数码支付代币供应商监管”等方面作出了改善。它不仅仅完善了新加坡的支付服务监管框架,与全球接轨。金管局也能够灵活地从多方面对应种种风险。

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COVID-19 (임시조치) 법 2020 개정안 – Part 8A 및 Part 8B

본 기고문은 2020년 11월 30일부터 발효된 COVID-19 (임시조치) 법 2020 (이하 “COVID-19법”)의개정안 중 Part 8A 및 Part 8B에 대한 내용을 안내 드리기 위해 작성되었습니다.

2020년 11월 3일자 BCA 공지 내용에 대한 기고문에서 안내 드린 바와 같이, 개정된COVID-19 법 Part 8A 와 Part 8B는 건설업 관계자들에게 공사 기간 연장 (EOT) 및 비용 분담을 통한추가적인 구제 방안을 규정하고 있습니다. 이러한 구제 방안은 정부가 건설 계약 당사자인 경우를 포함한 모든 건설 계약들에 적용됩니다. 이와 관련된 BCA 공지와 안내서는 첨부된 자료를 확인해 주시기 바랍니다. 개정된 COVID-19 법 Part 8A 및 Part 8B의 주요 내용을 정리하면 다음과 같습니다.

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Navigating Crisis – Considerations for Private Equity and Venture Capital Funds

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Globally, private equity (“PE”) and venture capital (“VC”) funds ended April 2020 with a record $2.6 trillion in unspent capital at their disposal. With cash readily available, the ongoing coronavirus pandemic presents ample opportunities for well-managed PE and VC sponsors to capitalize on these trying economic circumstances. At the same time, the economic damage wrought by the pandemic presents significant challenges to sponsors and their portfolio companies. This article discusses some of the ongoing opportunities and challenges PE and VC sponsors face, with a focus on three broad categories: (i) considerations for existing portfolio companies, (ii) the impact on transaction execution and terms for new portfolio investments, and (iii) fund-level considerations.

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COVID-19 Updates for Singapore Employers: Cost Reduction, Mandatory Notifications, and Government Support from the Fortitude Budget

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Following the end of the circuit breaker period on 1 June 2020, Singapore is implementing a gradual resumption of business. During this period, employers are likely to continue to have concerns over cost-saving and business continuity measures and the government support available to them.

 

Since our previous article, there have been a number of updates and advisories from the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) providing additional guidance to employers during the circuit breaker period and beyond. Shortly before the end of the circuit breaker period, the Singapore government had also presented the Fortitude Budget on 26 May 2020, which includes, among other things, additional support for employers.

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Reopening the Workplace During the COVID-19 Pandemic: What Employers Need to Know

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Singapore’s circuit breaker period came to an end on 2 June 2020 with the government introducing a three-phased approach for transitioning into a “new normal” and resuming economic activities safely.

With certain businesses reopening, the government is encouraging continued vigilance through a mix of statutory obligations as well as guidelines from the various government ministries. In terms of statutory obligations, the updated COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) (Control Order) Regulations 2020 includes specific obligations for employers, among others, to institute safe practices in the workplace. In terms of guidelines, the Ministry of Manpower has issued certain Safe Management Measures for general workplace settings and sector-specific guidelines for specific workplace settings.

This article aims to educate and provide guidance to employers operating post-circuit breaker on the requirements which may be relevant to them.

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Alternative Arrangements for Companies’ General Meetings

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We had previously written about the COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) Act and its provisions for the Minister for Law to prescribe alternative arrangements for, among others, the holding of general meetings.

The COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) (Alternative Arrangements for Meetings for Companies, Variable Capital Companies, Business Trusts, Unit Trusts and Debenture Holders) Order 2020 (Order) was published in the Gazette on 13 April (and subsequently amended on 14 April 2020 and on 24 April 2020) and is deemed to come into effect on 27 March 2020.

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COVID-19 Pandemic: Relief Measures for Businesses in Myanmar

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Myanmar’s economy and businesses have seen a significant slowdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. To curb with this slowdown, the Myanmar government has come out with various measures that are intended to provide relief to the affected businesses. The various relief measures implemented across the government ministries are as follows:

Financial Relief for Priority Sectors

The Ministry of Planning, Finance and Industry (“MOPFI”) issued Notification No. 1/2020 on 18 March 2020 stating that businesses in the cut, make and pack sector, hotels, tourism companies, and small and medium enterprises (“Priority Sectors”) are entitled to the following reliefs:

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