Virtual Power Purchase Agreements in Singapore

Rising pressure to move towards net-zero carbon emissions has resulted in an increasing number of large corporations entering into physical power purchase agreements (PPA) and/or virtual power purchase agreements (VPPA) for renewable energy.

In resource-scarce Singapore, solar energy remains the main source of locally generated renewable energy. Recently, Singapore unveiled one of the world’s largest floating solar panel farms, but due to Singapore’s land constraints, the majority of the solar photovoltaic systems are deployed on building rooftops. Under a PPA arrangement, a corporation with rooftop space enters into a long-term offtake agreement to purchase power from a solar generator at a pre-agreed price based on a specific delivery schedule. This arrangement is commonly referred to as “solar leasing” in Singapore since the project developer will typically lease the rooftop from the corporation to install solar panels.

However, PPAs are often not feasible when dealing with constraints like limited rooftop space or where energy demands are in excess of rooftop energy generation. In such situations, we have seen more corporations turn to VPPAs to meet their sustainability goals.

We set out below a brief overview on VPPAs, including some of the key issues that, in our experience, parties to a contract often encounter.

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一些常见错误的避免 – 当拥有新加坡子公司的中国企业寻求IPO时。

2020年当中,全球有1415次首次公开募股(”IPO“),为相关公司筹集了3313亿美元的资金 。这在年同比交易量和筹集的收益方面,显示了大幅增长。相较2019年全球也只有1040宗IPO,总共筹集了1992亿美元的资金。考虑到新冠疫情使世界各地的IPO活动在2020年4月和5月急剧放缓,2020年的数据就显得更加突出了。

当下的亚太地区(APAC)是个非常值得关注的地区。2020年全球范围启动的IPO数量中,多过一半(约占全球IPO总数的52% )是在亚太地区的交易所进行的。尤其是亚太地区的主要热点中国(不包括台湾和香港), 仅中国单单就进行了365宗IPO,总共筹集了640亿美金。上海证券交易所(”上交所“)和深圳证券交易所(”深交所“)在2020年分别有234和161宗IPO 。这表示中国的上市量比2019年的202宗IPO大幅增加了81%。2021年前三个月的IPO增长看似完全没有消减的迹象,多达143家中国公司完成IPO,总共筹集高达236亿美元资金 。2021年9月3日,北京证券交易所(“北交所”)成立,旨在服务创新型中小企业。根据其2021年市场统计数据,2021年共有82家公司上市,融资金额为75.22亿人民币(约合11.81亿美金) 。

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The opinions expressed on this blog are those of the author and are not to be construed as legal advice.

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