Virginia Federal Court Authorizes $2.4 Million Award For ERISA Severance Plan Benefits In WARN Act Class Action

By Gerald L. Maatman, Jr., Jennifer A. Riley, and Kathryn Brown

Duane Morris Takeaways: On January 16 and 17, 2024, in Messer v. Bristol Compressors International, LLC, No. 1:18-CV-00040 (W.D. Va.), on remand from a Fourth Circuit decision, Judge James P. Jones of the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Virginia issued an opinion and order entering judgment in the amount of $2,407,471.90 for severance pay benefits owed under an ERISA employee benefits plan based on violations of the 60-day notice requirement of the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN Act), 29 U.S.C. § 2102(a)(1). The multi-million dollar ruling stems from a 2018 WARN-covered “plant closing” and follows an earlier award on November 23, 2021 of $1.39 million to certain class members for damages including back pay and interest owed pursuant to the WARN Act for the same notice violation underlying the recent ruling.

The decision highlights the extremely technical nature and high stakes of WARN Act litigation in the class action context.

Case Background

On July 31, 2018, Bristol Compressors International (BCI) notified employees that it would close its manufacturing facility in Bristol, Virginia, and their employment would terminate on or before September 30, 2018. BCI implemented several rounds of terminations over the next three and a half months, beyond the originally anticipated date of September 30, 2018 for the final terminations. However, BCI did not issue additional notice under the WARN to those whose employment ended after September 30, 2018.  The manufacturing facility ultimately closed on November 16, 2018.

On October 19, 2018, a group of former employees sued BCI- under the WARN Act.  The plaintiffs alleged that the company failed to provide 60 days’ notice of their terminations in accordance with the specific requirements of the WARN Act.

On June 20, 2019, the Court granted the plaintiffs’ motion for certification of three sub-classes of former employees terminated due to the plant closing under Rules 23(a) and 23(b)(3). Sub-class One included employees involuntarily terminated between July 31, 2018 and August 31, 2018. Sub-class Two included employees involuntarily terminated after August 31, 2018 who signed a stay bonus agreement that included an express waiver of claims under the WARN Act. Sub-class Three included employees involuntarily terminated after August 31, 2018 who had not signed a stay bonus agreement.

Following a bench trial, the Court in 2020 granted summary judgment to BCI on the plaintiffs’ claim for benefits owed under a company severance pay plan. The Court found that BCI validly terminated its severance pay plan before the employment terminations.  In a separate 2020 opinion, the Court dismissed upon summary judgment the WARN Act claims of four class members whose employment ended on October 19, 2018. The Court reasoned that BCI’s July 31, 2018 notification was adequate to prepare them for their later job losses. The plaintiffs appealed those prior rulings to the Fourth Circuit.

The Fourth Circuit’s Ruling

On April 3, 2023, the Fourth Circuit, in an unpublished opinion, reversed and remanded parts of the 2020 rulings.  Messer v. Bristol Compressors International, LLC, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 7826 (4th Cir. Apr. 3, 2023) (per curiam).

The Fourth Circuit reversed the denial of severance pay benefits to the class, concluding the company did not terminate the severance pay plan in accordance with the ERISA’s requirements for modifying or terminating an ERISA-governed benefits plan.  As a result, the severance pay plan was in effect when the employment terminations occurred.

The Fourth Circuit affirmed the decision upholding the release of claims under the WARN Act to members of Sub-class Two. However, because the release of claims in the stay bonus agreements those class members signed explicitly carved out claims for vested benefits under the company’s “written benefit plans,” members of Sub-class Two did not waive their claims for severance pay benefits owed to them under the ERISA-governed employee benefit plan.

The Fourth Circuit also vacated the grant of summary judgment to BCI on the WARN Act claims of the four plaintiffs whose employment ended on October 19, 2018.  The Fourth Circuit pointed to the regulation under the WARN Act providing that, if an employer postpones a covered plant closure for 60 days or more, additional 60 days’ notice under the WARN Act is owed to affected employees.  See 20 C.F.R. § 639.10. Because the company issued no additional notice to those four individuals after July 31, 2018, but terminated their employment after September 30, 2018, the Fourth Circuit opined that a WARN Act violation was established.

The District Court’s Decision

On remand, the Court granted the plaintiffs’ unopposed motion for summary judgment on the two issues on which the Fourth Circuit reversed and remanded. Consistent with the Fourth Circuit’s ruling, the Court held that all class members were entitled to severance pay benefits under the severance pay plan, plus interest, and the four plaintiffs whose employment ended on October 19, 2018 were in addition owed back pay and prejudgment interest for a 60-day period.

On January 17, 2014, the Court ordered the case closed, with leave granted to class counsel to file a supplemental motion for attorneys’ fees and costs within 30 days.

Implications For Employers

The Messer case is illustrative of the many decisions in recent years in which plaintiffs have recovered multi-million dollar judgments following class certification of WARN Act claims. Employers should remain vigilant to the WARN Act, and the potential exposure to 60 days’ worth of back pay, lost benefits and prejudgment interest in the event of violations, well before implementing any mass layoff or plant closure that may trigger its strict notification requirements.

Trend #5 – U.S. Supreme Court Rulings Continue To Impact The Class Action Landscape

By Gerald L. Maatman, Jr. and Jennifer A. Riley

Duane Morris Takeaway: As the ultimate referee of law, the U.S. Supreme Court traditionally has defined the playing field for class action litigation and, through its rulings, has impacted the class action landscape. The past year did not buck that trend. On June 29, 2023, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Students for Fair Admissions, Inc., et al. v. President & Fellows of Harvard College, 600 U.S. 181 (2023), that two colleges and universities that considered race as a factor in the admissions process violated the Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Constitution and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The ruling is fueling controversy along with a wave of claims that is likely to expand.

Check out the video below to see Duane Morris partner Jennifer Riley discuss the impact of U.S. Supreme Court rulings on the class action landscape in 2023, and what is coming in 2024.

Trend #5 – U.S. Supreme Court Rulings Continue To Impact The Class Action Landscape

  1. The U.S. Supreme Court’s Decision

Students for Fair Admissions, an advocacy group, brought two lawsuits alleging that the use of race as a factor in admissions by Harvard and the University of North Carolina, respectively, violated Title VI and the Equal Protective Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The U.S. Supreme Court agreed.

After reviewing the language of the Fourteenth Amendment (no State shall “deny to any person . . . the equal protection of the laws”), the Supreme Court began its analysis by recapping its early jurisprudence, including its decision in Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U. S. 483, 493 (1954), wherein it held that the right to a public education “must be made available to all on equal terms.” Students, 600 U.S. at 201, 204. The Supreme Court noted that these decisions, and others like them, reflect the broad “core purpose” of the Equal Protection Clause: “[D]o[ing] away with all governmentally imposed discrimination based on race.” Id. at 206.

The Supreme Court explained that, accordingly, any exceptions to the Equal Protection Clause’s guarantee must survive a daunting two-step examination known as “strict scrutiny,” which asks, first, whether the racial classification is used to “further compelling governmental interests” and, second, whether the government’s use of race is “narrowly tailored” or “necessary” to achieve that interest. Id. at 206-07. In Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306, 325 (2003), the Supreme Court endorsed the view that “student body diversity is a compelling state interest” but insisted on limits in how universities consider race. In particular, the Supreme Court sought to guard against two dangers: (i) the risk that the use of race will devolve into “illegitimate . . . stereotyp[ing]” and (ii) the risk that race will be used as a negative to discriminate against those racial groups that are not the beneficiaries of the race-based preference. To manage its concerns, Grutter imposed a third limit on race-based admissions programs. “At some point,” the Supreme Court held, “they must end.” Students, 600 U.S. at 212.

In Students for Fair Admissions, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the defendants’ race-conscious admissions systems failed each factor and, therefore, ran afoul of the Equal Protection Clause. As an initial matter, the U.S. Supreme Court found that defendants failed to operate their race-based admissions programs in a manner that is “sufficiently measurable to permit judicial [review].” Id. at 214-17. Second, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the race-based admissions systems failed to comply with the twin commands of the Equal Protection Clause that race may never be used as a “negative” and that it may not operate as a stereotype. Id. at 218-219. The U.S. Supreme Court explained that “college admissions are zero-sum. A benefit provided to some applicants but not to others necessarily advantages the former group at the expense of the latter.” Id. Third, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the admissions programs lack a “logical end point” as Grutter required. Id. at 221. As a result, the U.S. Supreme Court determined that the admissions programs “cannot be reconciled with the guarantees of the Equal Protection Clause.” Id. at 230.

  1. The Ruling’s Early Impact

On July 19, 2023, in Ultima Services Corp., et al. v. U.S. Department of Agriculture, No. 20-CV-00041, 2023 WL 4633481 (E.D. Tenn. July 19, 2023), a district court extended Students for Fair Admissions to the government contracting context and held that the Small Business Association’s use of racial preferences to award government contracts likewise violates the Equal Protection Clause.

Section 8(a) of the Small Business Act instructs the Small Business Administration (the SBA) to contract with other agencies “to furnish articles, equipment, supplies, services, or materials to the Government,” 15 U.S.C. § 637(a)(1)(A), and to “arrange for the performance of such procurement contracts by [subcontracting with] socially and economically disadvantaged small business concerns,” 15 U.S.C. § 637(a)(1)(B). The SBA adopted a regulation creating a “rebuttable presumption” that “Black Americans; Hispanic Americans; Native Americans; Asian Pacific Americans [; and] Subcontinent Asian Americans” are “socially disadvantaged.” 13 C.F.R. § 124.103(b)(1).

The district court held that the § 8(a) program does not satisfy strict scrutiny. First, the Administration did not assert a compelling interest. The district court reasoned that while the government “has a compelling interest in remediating specific, identified instances of past discrimination,” the program lacked any such stated goals. Id. at *11. Second, the district court held that, even if the SBA had a compelling interest in remediating specific past discrimination, the § 8(a) program was not narrowly tailored to serve that alleged compelling interest. Id. at *14. The § 8(a) program had no logical end point or termination date, was both underinclusive and overinclusive relative to its “imprecise” racial categories, and failed to review race-neutral alternatives.

The district court concluded that the defendants’ use of the rebuttable presumption violated Ultima’s Fifth Amendment right to equal protection, and it enjoined defendants from using the rebuttable presumption of social disadvantage in administering the program. Id. at *18.

Although the district court in Ultima limited its holding to the use of a “rebuttable presumption” in administration of § 8(a) programs, in addressing the requirement that racially conscious government programs must have a “logical end point,” it cited Students for Fair Admissions and noted that “its reasoning is not limited to just [college admissions programs].” Id. at *15 n.8. Thus, the first opinion considering the impact of Students for Fair Admissions extended it beyond college admissions, reflecting the decision’s potential to fuel claims asserted under 42 U.S.C. § 1981, Title VII, and other anti-discrimination statutes.

  1. Implications For Class Action Litigation

The Supreme Court’s decision has also caused private sector employers to question whether the ruling impacts their diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) initiatives. While politicians moved quickly to stake out positions on the issue, the plaintiffs’ class action bar and advocacy groups moved to take advantage of the uncertainty to line up a deluge of claims.

In the wake of Students for Fair Admissions, the Office for Federal Contractor Compliance Programs (OFCCP), the office responsible for overseeing affirmative action programs for federal contractors, promptly updated its website to state that its affirmative action programs are separate from those that educational institutions implemented to increase racial diversity in their student bodies. The OFCCP stated that “[t]here continue to be lawful and appropriate ways to foster equitable and inclusive work environments and recruit qualified workers of all backgrounds.”

Likewise, in response to the decision, EEOC Chair Charlotte Burrows, a Democratic appointee, promptly issued a statement declaring that the decision “does not address employer efforts to foster diverse and inclusive workforces or to engage the talents of all qualified workers, regardless of their background. It remains lawful for employers to implement diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility programs that seek to ensure workers of all backgrounds are afforded equal opportunity in the workplace.”

By contrast, Andrea Lucas, a Republican-appointed EEOC Commissioner, emphasized a different sentiment in a Fox News interview regarding the impact of Students for Fair Admissions: “I think this [decision] is going to be a wake-up call for employers. . . . Even though many lawyers don’t use the word affirmative action, it’s rampant today. . . . Pretty much everywhere there is a ton of pressure . . . across corporate America to take race-conscious . . . actions in employment law. That’s been illegal and it is still illegal.” As to potential challenges, she added: “I have noticed an increasing number of challenges to corporate DEI programs and I would expect that this decision is going to shine even more of a spotlight about how out of alignment some of those programs are. . . I expect that you are going to have a rising amount of challenges.”

Consistent with predictions, in the wake of the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling, Republican Attorneys General from 13 states and Senator Tom Common of Arkansas sent a letter to the CEOs of Fortune 100 companies stating: “[T]oday’s major companies adopt explicitly . . . discriminatory practices [including], among other things, explicit racial quotas and preferences in hiring, recruiting, retention, promotion, and advancement.” They urged the companies to cease unlawful hiring practices. In response, 21 Democratic Attorneys General sent a letter condemning the Republican Attorneys General’s “attempt at intimidation”: “While we agree with our colleagues that “companies that engage in racial discrimination should and will face serious legal consequences…[w]e write to reassure you that corporate efforts to recruit diverse workforces and create inclusive work environments are legal and reduce corporate risk for claims of discrimination.”

On September 19, 2023, Students for Fair Admissions filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York seeking to end race-conscious admissions at the U.S. Military Academy. . See Students for Fair Admissions v. U.S. Military Academy at West Point, et al., No. 7:23 Civ. 08262 (S.D.N.Y.). The group alleged that the admissions program at West Point, which takes race into account in its admissions process for future Army officers, is unconstitutional and unnecessary for a service that relies on soldiers following orders regardless of skin color.

The group filed a similar action against the U.S. Naval Academy on October 5, 2023, in the U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland. See Students for Fair Admissions v. U.S. Naval Academy, et al., No. 23-CV-2699 (D. Md.). The group seeks to prevent the Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland from taking race into account in the selection of an entering class of midshipmen. After filing suit, the group promptly sought a preliminary injunction.

On December 20, 2023, a federal judge denied a request to temporarily bar the Naval Academy from using race in its admissions process while the parties litigate the case. Students for Fair Admissions v. U.S. Naval Academy, No. 23-CV-2699, 2023 WL 8806668, at *1 (D. Md. Dec. 20, 2023) (noting that plaintiff’s requested injunctive relief “would undoubtedly alter the status quo,” and, at this stage, the parties have not developed a factual record from which the court can determine whether the Naval Academy’s admissions practices will survive strict scrutiny).

On October 4, 2023, another advocacy group, the America First Legal Foundation asked the EEOC to launch an investigation into Salesforce’s allegedly “unlawful employment practices” claiming that, through its programs promoting diversity and equality, it engaged in unlawful race-based and sex-based discrimination. The group has lodged similar accusations against than a dozen other companies alleging that they maintain programs that aim to increase workplace representation of women and minorities at the expense of White, heterosexual men. The American Alliance for Equal Rights filed lawsuits against additional companies, including law firms, claiming that their grants and programs excluded individuals based on their race.

Finally, on December 19, 2023, a Wisconsin attorney represented by the Wisconsin Institute for Law & Liberty filed suit alleging that a clerkship program maintained by the Wisconsin State Bar is unconstitutional because its eligibility requirements and selection processes discriminate among students based on various protected traits, primarily race. See Suhr v. Dietrich, et al., Case No. 23-CV-01697 (E.D. Wis.). He claims that members of Bar leadership are violating his First Amendment rights because they are using his mandatory dues as a practicing attorney to fund the program.

As these questions continue to percolate, and courts start to weave a patchwork quilt of rulings, such uncertainty is likely to fuel class action filings and settlements in the workplace class action space at an increasing rate. Companies should expect to see more governmental enforcement activity, litigation focused on alleged “reverse” discrimination, and claims challenging DEI initiatives.

It Is Almost Here — The Duane Morris Class Action Review For 2024

By Gerald L. Maatman, Jr. and Jennifer A. Riley

Duane Morris Takeaways:  As we kick off 2024, we are pleased to announce the publication of the second annual edition of the Duane Morris Class Action Review this coming week. It is a one-of-its-kind publication analyzing class action trends, decisions, and settlements in all areas impacting corporations, including the substantive areas of antitrust, appeals, the Class Action Fairness Act, civil rights, consumer fraud, data breaches, EEOC-Initiated and government enforcement litigation, discrimination, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, wage & hour class and collective actions, labor, privacy, procedural issues, product liability and mass torts, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, securities fraud, state court class actions, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, and the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act. The Review also highlights key rulings on attorneys’ fee awards in class actions, motions granting and denying sanctions in class actions, the top class action settlements across all areas of law, and primers on both the Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act and the California Private Attorney General Act. Finally, the Review provides insight as to what companies and corporate counsel can expect to see in 2024.

This past year Employment Practices Liability Consultant Magazine (EPLiC) called the DMCAR “the Bible” on class action litigation and an essential desk reference for business executives, corporate counsel, and human resources professionals.” It said that “The Review must-have resource for in-depth analysis of class actions in general and workplace litigation in particular.” EPLiC continued that “The Duane Morris Class Action Review analyzes class action trends, decisions, and settlements in all areas impacting Corporate America,” and “provides insight as to what companies and corporate counsel can expect . . . in terms of filings by the plaintiffs’ class action bar.”

The 2024 Review analyzes rulings from all state and federal courts in 23 areas of law. It is designed as a reader-friendly research tool that is easily accessible in hard copy and e-Book formats. Class action rulings from throughout the year are analyzed and organized into 23 chapters and 6 appendices for ease of analysis and reference.

Check back here in the coming week for your free download of the publication.

The Duane Morris Class Action Defense Blog’s 200th Post Of 2023!

Duane Morris Takeaways: 2023 was a busy year for the Duane Morris Class Action Defense blog – it just recorded its 200th post of the year!!!!

Since our kick-off post, our data analytics show there have been over 34,000 views to blog posts, with thousands of our loyal subscribers reading about class action litigation developments. There are many highlights from this year’s posts, but we wanted to provide just a few for you here. Click on the links below to see all the hot trends in class action litigation!

Overview Of The 200 Posts In 2023

We launched the first edition of the Duane Morris Class Action Review, which is a one-of-its-kind publication analyzing class action trends, decisions, and settlements in all areas impacting Corporate America. The Review has been prominently featured in the media and is a must-have for all human resources professionals, business leaders, and corporate counsel.

We will be publishing the 2024 Edition of the Review in January.

We also published five mini-books focused on specialized areas of law in class action litigation and on EEOC-Initiated litigation. Here are the links to our blog posts announcing the EEOC-Initiated Litigation Review, the Privacy Class Action Review, the Wage & Hour Class And Collective Action Review, the Private Attorneys General Act Reviewand the Consumer Fraud Class Action Review.









We also kicked off the Duane Morris Class Action Weekly Wire podcast, in which we talk about hot class action rulings and developments in real time and in relatable ways for our viewers. Tune in on Fridays for new episodes, and subscribe to our show from your preferred podcast platform: SpotifyAmazon MusicApple PodcastsGoogle Podcasts, the Samsung Podcasts app, Podcast IndexTune InListen NotesiHeartRadioDeezerYouTube or our RSS feed.

Below are the top five most viewed blog posts in 2023 – which had over 10,000 combined views!

  1. Revised Illinois Day and Temporary Labor Services Act: Implications For Staffing Agencies And Their Customers
  2. It Is Here — The Duane Morris Class Action Review – 2023
  3. Colorado Supreme Court Applies Litigation Privilege To Attorney’s Allegedly Defamatory Statements About Class Action Defendant
  4. Delaware Says Corporate Officers Are Now Subject To A Duty Of Oversight In The Workplace Harassment Context
  5. Implementation Of Equal Pay And Benefits Requirement Of The Illinois Day & Temporary Labor Services Act Likely Postponed Until April 2024

Thank you loyal followers for making the Class Action Defense blog your pick for class action litigation related information, trends, and analysis. We truly appreciate it! Please keep coming back, we promise to keep the content fresh!

The Class Action Weekly Wire – Episode 42: Uphill Battlegrounds: The 2023-2024 Judicial Hellholes Report

Duane Morris Takeaway: This week’s episode of the Class Action Weekly Wire features Duane Morris partners Jerry Maatman and Alex Karasik with their discussion of the American Tort Reform Association’s 2023-2024 Judicial Hellholes Report and what it signifies for corporate defendants in the coming year.

Check out today’s episode and subscribe to our show from your preferred podcast platform: Spotify, Amazon Music, Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, the Samsung Podcasts app, Podcast Index, Tune In, Listen Notes, iHeartRadio, Deezer, YouTube or our RSS feed.

Episode Transcript

Jerry Maatman: Thank you for being here. I’m Jerry Maatman of Duane Morris, and welcome to our regular weekly Friday podcast, the Class Action Weekly Wire. I’m joined by my partner, Alex Karasik, who’s going to talk about the recent American Tort Reform Association Judicial Hellholes report.

Alex Karasik: Thank you, Jerry. Very happy to be here.

Jerry: Alex, we followed this report over the last decade. It’s always published in the second week of December, and it’s purpose is to identify jurisdictions, venues where corporate defendants have a difficult time defending themselves, either due to liberal judges, liberal discovery or class certification rules, or juries that tend to favor plaintiffs over defendants. What did you find interesting with this year’s Judicial Hellholes report?

Alex: Great question, Jerry. This is the first year ever that the ATRA ranked two jurisdictions at the top of the list, Georgia and Pennsylvania, and these are two very interesting states, and that major corporations do business in both of these states quite frequently. In fact, most major corporations in America have some sort of operation in each.

In Pennsylvania, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas have proven to be two of the most challenging courts for defendants. In 2022, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania eliminated the state’s venue rule for medical liability litigation which opened up the flood gates for personal injury lawyers to file medical liability claims in courts that they view as favorable. Pennsylvania also demonstrated there’s some eyebrow raising gigantic verdicts to plaintiffs, including a billion dollar reward against Mitsubishi in a product liability case. There have also been some problematic punitive damages rulings which can again lead to the plaintiffs’ counsel filing more and more in these courts. So Pennsylvania is definitely one of the eye popping states, especially being at the top of this list.

Georgia, which is the defending champion from 2022 report, made this list largely in part due to its massive $1.7 billion punitive damages award in a products liability case containing ethically questionable events and alleged bias court orders. The report noted that not much has changed in Georgia in 2023, and the courts are awarding massive verdicts and issuing liability expanding decisions left and right. So for employers who have business operations in Pennsylvania and Georgia, even though they might not traditionally think of these as bad courts to be in they definitely need to be paying attention to the huge verdicts that are coming out of those locales.

Jerry: I thought the inclusion of Georgia and Pennsylvania were quite interesting. Obviously, in our class action practice those are known as two epicenters where plaintiffs’ lawyers are apt to file cases, and most corporate defendants are doing business in those major jurisdictions. I know, Alex, that you practice on a nationwide basis and tend to go to those epicenters. What were some of the other jurisdictions that rounded out the top 10 this year in the ATRA’s Judicial Hellholes report?

Alex: The first noticeable jurisdiction that I saw on there was right here in our home turf Jerry, in Cook County, Illinois, in Chicago. You and I and our team routinely practices in biometric privacy defense actions here in cases brought under the Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act, or the BIPA. and a few years ago, after the Illinois Supreme Court issued a ruling about no injury being required to proceed with these lawsuits and saying technical violations are enough. The plaintiffs’ bar has been particularly zealous in pursuing these BIPA class actions, and Cook County seems to be the home of those cases.

#3: Beyond Cook County and beyond Illinois, predictably California is on this list. California is a regular on this report. In California of course, the Private Attorneys General Act, or PAGA, litigation has resulted in a huge flow of lawsuits against employers. Also Prop 65 lawsuits, and just the overall volume of cases in California, including environmental and ESG cases, are also noteworthy. It’s not a surprise that it’s on this list.

#4: Another state that we routinely see on this list is New York. Most recently New York has some no injury consumer class action lawsuits and some massive verdicts that have caught the attention of the ATRA.

#5: South Carolina, which has had a robust asbestos litigation docket.

#6: Lansing, Michigan, particularly due to liability expanding decisions by the Michigan Supreme Court and some pro-plaintiff rulings out there.

#7: Louisiana – lots of insurance claim fraud litigation as well as some coastal litigation there. Louisiana is another one to keep an eye on.

#8: St. Louis, Missouri. Some interesting verdicts coming out there, including verdicts in the nuclear energy space.

So lots of different courts around the country as we see this and even some landlocked states in the middle of the country. So it’s very interesting to see where these courts are emerging as tough places for employers to be.

Jerry: I’ve always thought that class action litigation is a little bit like real estate – location, location, location is everything – and this report confirms anecdotal information that plaintiffs’ bar seeks favorable jurisdictions in areas where judges, juries, or the case laws aligned to make their cases certification friendly.

The American Tort Reform Association also characterized several jurisdictions as what it calls being on a ‘watch list.’ Are there some other jurisdictions that corporate counsel should be aware of and look to in 2024 as sometimes being problematic in terms of where the plaintiffs’ bar files more cases?

Alex: Yeah, Jerry, one of the new jurisdictions on the watch list that I thought was particularly surprising is Kentucky. The ATRA noted that Kentucky, which is again a newcomer to this list, had some issues with lawyers resorting to unique measures to secure wins, and the mention of Kentucky on here is somewhat of a surprise given that it’s not the typical courts we see – such as California and New York. New Jersey has a powerful trial bar, and New Jersey is increasingly becoming a place where employers need to pay attention if they get sued there, and even Texas, which is, you know, oftentimes thought to be an employer-friendly jurisdiction courts within Texas. But now the Court of Appeals in the Fifth District and the ATRA has opined that certain other courts in Texas are starting to become more pro-plaintiff, more product liability in more expansion of verdicts there. So we’re keeping an eye on Texas too, even though it typically tends to be an employer-friendly state for various state and federal jurisdictions.

But despite the gloom and doom, there are some jurisdictions that are improving according to the ATRA, are at least improving in terms of the prospects of employers being able to succeed in these places. For example, the New Hampshire and Delaware Supreme Courts rejected some no injury medical monitoring claims. So that’s a positive development for defendants there. The New Jersey appellate court in particular also had a notable case of discarding and proper expert testimony.

And I know we mentioned Texas had some other courts leading pro claim, if but the Texas Supreme Court rejected claims involving the manipulation of juries. So I think there’s certainly some hope in those places. And finally, the West Virginia Supreme Court recently placed reasonable limits on employer liability. So while a lot of the courts that are on this annual report are mainstays, there are a few new ones that are kind of catching our eye, but there’s also a few that are seemingly becoming a little bit more friendly for employers and defendants to defend cases in. So, as you mentioned Jerry, location, location, location and the keys to these locations ebbs and flows depending on various factors within those courts.

Jerry: Well, thank you Alex for your thoughts and analysis in this area. I definitely believe the report is a required read and an essential desk reference for corporate counsel and knowing the playing field where you’re sued, your judge, the case law – critical components to crafting essential defense strategies to defeat and defend these large cases. Well, thank you very much for joining us on this week’s Class Action Weekly Wire.

Alex: Thank you, Jerry. It was a pleasure to be here and thank you to all of our listeners. Stay tuned!

The 2023-2024 Judicial Hellholes Report From The American Tort Reform Association Ranks The Worst Jurisdictions For Defendants

By Gerald L. Maatman, Jr. and Jennifer A. Riley

Duane Morris Takeaways: Annually the American Tort Reform Association (“ATRA”) publishes its “Judicial Hellholes Report,” focusing on litigation issues and identifying jurisdictions likely to have unfair and biased administration of justice. The ATRA recently published its 2023-2024 Report and for the first time in the history of the report, the ATRA ranked two jurisdictions at the top of the list – both Georgia and Pennsylvania, specifically the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas – as the most challenging venues for defendants. Readers can find a copy here and the executive summary here.

The Judicial Hellholes Report is an important read for corporate counsel facing class action litigation because it identifies jurisdictions that are generally unfavorable to defendants. The Report defines a “judicial hellhole” as a jurisdiction where judges in civil cases systematically apply laws and procedures in an unfair and unbalanced manner, generally to the disadvantage of defendants. The Report is a “must read” for anyone litigating class actions and making decisions about venue strategy.

The 2023 Hellholes

In its recently released annual report, the ATRA identified 9 jurisdictions on its 2023 hellholes list – which, in order, include, tied at number one: (1) Georgia – (the defending “champion” from the top of the 2022 list, with massive verdicts bogging down business and more liability expanding decisions issued by the Georgia Supreme Court); and (1) Pennsylvania (especially in the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas and the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania); (3) Cook County (as a “no-injury required” hotspot and lawsuits stemming from the Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act); (4) California (with Proposition 65 lawsuits thriving and a huge overall volume of lawsuits, in addition to Private Attorney General Act (PAGA) litigation, lemon law litigation, and environmental hotbed); (5) New York (with “no-injury” consumer class action lawsuits and massive verdicts); (6) South Carolina (particularly in asbestos litigation, with problems related to bias against corporate defendants, unwarranted sanctions, low evidentiary requirements, liability expanding rulings, unfair trials, severe verdicts, and a willingness to overturn or modify jury verdicts to benefit plaintiffs); (7) Lansing, Michigan (particularly due to liability-expanding decisions by the Michigan Supreme Court and pro-plaintiff legislative activity); (8) Louisiana (with long-running costal litigation and insurance claim fraud litigation); and (9) St. Louis, Missouri (with focuses on junk science in the courtrooms and nuclear verdicts).

According to the ATRA’s analysis, these venues are less than optimal for corporate defendants and often attract plaintiffs’ attorneys, particularly for the filing of class action lawsuits. Therefore, corporate counsel should take particular care if they encounter a class action lawsuit filed in one of these venues.

The 2024 “Watch List”

The ATRA also included 3 jurisdictions on its “watch list,” including Kentucky (the ATRA noted that Kentucky, as a newcomer to the list, has been reported as having some lawyers resorting to unethical measures to secure wins); New Jersey (with a powerful trial bar), and Texas (particularly the Court of Appeals for the Fifth District, which the ATRA opined has developed a reputation for being pro-plaintiff and pro-liability expansion).

In addition, the ATRA recognized that several jurisdictions made significant positive improvements this year, highlighting decisions by the New Hampshire and Delaware Supreme Courts, which rejected no-injury medical monitoring claims, the New Jersey Appellate Court, which discarded improper expert testimony, the Texas Supreme Court, which rejected manipulation of juries, and the West Virginia Supreme Court, which placed reasonable limits on employer liability.

In addition to court actions, the ATRA also stated that nine state legislatures enacted positive civil justice reforms this year.

 Implications For Employers

The Judicial Hellholes Report often mirrors the experience of companies in high-stakes class actions, as Georgia, Pennsylvania, Illinois, California, New York, South Carolina, Michigan, Louisiana, and Missouri are among the leading states where plaintiffs’ lawyers file class actions. These jurisdictions are linked by class certification standards that are more plaintiff-friendly and more generous damages recovery possibilities under state laws.

The Duane Morris Class Action Review – 2024 Is Coming Soon!

By Gerald L. Maatman, Jr. and Jennifer A. Riley

Duane Morris Takeaway: Happy Holidays to our loyal readers of the Duane Morris Class Action Defense Blog! Our elves are busy at work this holiday season in wrapping up our start-of-the-year kick-off publication – the Duane Morris Class Action Review – 2024. We will go to press in early January, and launch the 2024 Review from our blog and our book launch website.

The 2024 Review builds on the success of last year’s edition. At over 500 pages, the 2024 Review has more analysis than ever before, with an analysis of over 1,100 class certification rulings from federal and state courts over this past year. The Review will be available for download as an E-Book too.

The Review is a one-of-its-kind publication analyzing class action trends, decisions, and settlements in all areas impacting Corporate America, including the substantive areas of antitrust, appeals, the Class Action Fairness Act, civil rights, consumer fraud, data breach, EEOC-Initiated and government enforcement litigation, employment discrimination, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, wage & hour class and collective actions, labor, privacy, procedural issues, product liability and mass torts, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, securities fraud, state court class actions, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, and the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act. The Review also highlights key rulings on attorneys’ fee awards in class actions, motions granting and denying sanctions in class actions, and the top class action settlement in each area. Finally, the Review provides insight as to what companies and corporate counsel can expect to see in 2024.

We are humbled and honored by the recent review of the Duane Morris Class Action Review – 2023 by Employment Practices Liability Consultant Magazine (“EPLiC”) – the review is here. EPLiC said that “The Review must-have resource for in-depth analysis of class actions in general and workplace litigation in particular.” EPLiC continued that “The Duane Morris Class Action Review analyzes class action trends, decisions, and settlements in all areas impacting Corporate America. The Review also highlights key rulings on attorneys’ fee awards in class actions, motions granting and denying sanctions in class actions, and the top class action settlement in a myriad of substantive areas. Finally, the Review provides insight as to what companies and corporate counsel can expect to see in 2023 in terms of filings by the plaintiffs’ class action bar.”

We look forward to providing this year’s edition of the Review to all of our loyal readers in early January. Stay tuned and Happy Holidays!

Judge Recommends Scam Class Action Settlement Site Be Shut Down

By Gerald L. Maatman, Jr. and Christian J. Palacios

Duane Morris Takeaways:  U.S. Magistrate Judge Joseph Marutollo’s recent report and recommendation – a novel order in the context of class action settlements – in the proceeding captioned In Re Payment Card Interchange Fee and Merchant Discount Antitrust Litigation, Case No. 1:05-MD-01720, Doc. No. 9009 (E.D.N.Y. Nov. 28, 2023), highlights the risks associated with class action claims websites and the potential for bad actors to create fraudulent web pages to mislead claimants. Corporate defendants should take care to monitor online activity following the creation of a court-authorized settlement website in order to protect any class-wide settlement and claimants against potential fraudsters. Indeed, in a world where scammers are becoming increasingly more sophisticated through the use of technology, class action settlement websites may be the next frontier in the battle against cybercrime.


After 15 years of contentious litigation, Visa and MasterCard settled a putative class action for $5.6 billion to resolve allegations that the credit card companies violated federal and state antitrust laws resulting in over 12 million merchants allegedly paying excessive fees to Visa and MasterCard. As is typical in class actions of this size, a court-authorized settlement website was created to accept claim submissions and provide claimants with details regarding the settlement agreement.

On November 28, 2023, Magistrate Judge Marutollo recommended that the Court order the website “” (and any affiliate website) be taken down, as the operators of the entity, who remain unknown, were attempting to deceive putative class members into using the site through various schemes, including using fake voicemails from rap artist Snoop Dogg to convince users of its validity.   According to Magistrate Judge Marutollo’s report, although the scam website ceased operation on November 21, 2023, it was unclear if other webpages remained open under different domain names that were also operated by the entity.

The Magistrate Judge’s Recommendation And Report

In addition to recommending the Court issue an order to take down of any and all remaining webpages that attempt to mimic the court-authorized settlement website, Magistrate Judge Marutollo also recommended that the owners and operators of the entity be required to identify themselves, and provide a list of all class members that signed up for its services, as well as give notice to would-be customers that any contract they entered into with the entity was now void.  Finally, the Magistrate Judge requested that the Court be notified of any newly-detected websites and recommended that the court-authorized website be updated to alert those who may have been deceived by the website.


Cybercriminals continue to capitalize on advances in technology to launch misinformation campaigns, and large class action settlements are in the cross-hairs of this emerging threat. Therefore, it is imperative that plaintiff and defendant-side representatives alike remain vigilant to protect class members from deception and safeguard the integrity of the class action settlement process.

Report From Montreal: What A Comparative Analysis Of ESG Class Action Litigation May Teach USA-Based Companies

By Gerald L. Maatman, Jr.

Duane Morris Takeaways: USA-based companies are experiencing a deluge of class action litigation. Part of the increase is related to ESG-related claims (“Environmental, Social, and Governance”) involving environmental justice, product advertising, employment and DEI, corporate social responsibility, and investment practices. At the National Conference on Class Actions 2023 by BLG and the Quebec Bar Association in Montreal, Jerry Maatman of the Duane Morris Class Action Defense Group provided commentary on the state of U.S. class action litigation and how Asian, European, and U.S.-based corporations should be “looking around the corner” to ready themselves for new class action theories advancing ESG-related claims..

The National Conference on Class Actions in Montreal  – with a robust two day agenda and roster of speakers from Canada, Europe, and Asia – examined diverse issues on cutting-edge class actions on a global basis. Subjects included the phenomenon of the “continuous evolution” of class action theories; securities fraud class action theories; collective, opt-in and opt-out representative actions in Canada and Europe; cross-jurisdictional class actions; and the dawn of ESG class actions filed by NGO’s, consumers, workers, and advocacy groups.

I had the privilege of speaking in Montreal on the current state of U.S. class action litigation, its impact on the global economy and litigation in non-U.S. jurisdictions, and the future of ESG-related class-wide litigation in America.

The plaintiffs’ class action bar in the United States is exceedingly innovative and in constant pursuit of “the next big then” insofar as potential liability is concerned for acts and omissions of Corporate America. Environmental, Social, and Governance issues – known as “ESG” – each of the verticals within ESG are topics on the mind of leading plaintiffs’ class action litigators. As ESG-related issues evolve and become increasingly more important to corporate stakeholders, class action litigation against companies is inevitable and has already begun to take shape. Factors driving these class actions include the new “social inflation” concepts coming out to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as social movements coalescing around climate change, technological disruptions, and social justice.

The Class Action Context

In 2022, the plaintiffs’ class action bar filed, litigated, and settled class actions at a breathtaking pace. The aggregate totals of the top ten class action settlements – in areas as diverse as mass torts, consumer fraud, antitrust, civil rights, securities fraud, privacy, and employment-related claims – reached the highest historical totals in the history of American jurisprudence. Class actions and government enforcement litigation spiked to over $63 billion in settlement totals. As analyzed in our Duane Morris Class Action Review, the totals included $50.32 billion for products liability and mass tort, $8.5 billion for consumer fraud, $3.7 billion for antitrust, $3.25 billion for securities fraud, and $1.3 billion for civil rights. While the exact totals are not in yet for 2023, aggregate settlement numbers are nearly as high over the past 11 months.

As “success begets success’ in this litigation space, the plaintiffs’ bar is focused on areas of opportunity for litigation targets. ESG-related areas are a prime area of risk.

The ESG Context

Corporate ESG programs is in a state of constant evolution. Early iterations were heavily focused on corporate social responsibility (or “CSR”), with companies sponsoring initiatives that were intended to benefit their communities. They entailed things like employee volunteering, youth training, and charitable contributions as well as internal programs like recycling and employee affinity groups. These efforts were not particularly controversial.

In recent years, ESG programs have become more extensive and more deeply integrated with companies’ core business strategies, including strategies for avoiding risks, such as those presented by employment discrimination claims, the impacts of climate change, supply chain accountability, and cybersecurity and privacy. Companies and studies have increasingly framed ESG programs as contributing to shareholder value.

As ESG programs become larger and more integrated into a company’s business, so do the risks of attracting attention from regulators and private litigants.

Class Actions Are Coming From Multiple Quarters

While class action litigation can emanate from many sources, four areas in particular are of importance in the ESG space.

Shareholders: Lawsuits by shareholders regarding ESG matters are accelerating. Examples include claims that their stock holdings have lost value as a result of false disclosures about issues like sexual harassment allegations involving key executives, cybersecurity incidents, or environmental disasters. Even absent a stock drop, some shareholders have brought successful derivative suits focused on ESG issues. Of recent note, employees of corporations incorporated in Delaware who serve in officer roles may be sued for breach of the duty of oversight in the particular area over which they have responsibility, including oversight over workplace harassment policies. In its ruling in In Re McDonald’s Corp. Stockholder Derivative Litigation, No. 2021-CV-324 (Del. Ch. Jan. 25, 2023), the Delaware Court of Chancery determined that like directors, officers are subject to oversight claims. The ruling expands the scope of the rule established in the case of In Re Caremark International Inc. Derivative Litigation, 698 A.2d 959 (Del. Ch. 1996), which recognized the duty of oversight for directors. The decision will likely result in a flurry of litigation activity by the plaintiffs’ bar, as new cases will be filed alleging that officers in corporations who were responsible for overseeing human resource functions can be held liable for failing to properly oversee investigations of workplace misconduct such as sexual harassment.

Vendors and Business Partners: As companies face increasing demands to address ESG issues in their operations and throughout their supply chains, ESG requirements in commercial contracts are increasing in prevalence. Requirements imposed on vendors, suppliers, and partners – to ensure their operations do not introduce ESG risks (e.g., by using forced or child labor or employing unsustainable environmental practices) are becoming regular staples in a commercial context. In addition, as more companies report greenhouse gas emissions – and may soon be required by the SEC to report on them – they increasingly require companies in their supply chain to provide information about their own emissions. Furthermore, if the SEC’s proposed cybersecurity disclosure rules are enacted, companies also may require increased reporting regarding cybersecurity from vendors and others. These actions – and disclosures – provide fodder for “greenwashing” claims, where consumers claim that company statements about environmental or social aspects of their products are false and misleading. The theories in these class actions are expanding by encompassing allegations involving product statements as well as a company’s general statements about its commitment to sustainability.

State Consumer Protection and Employment Laws: The patchwork quilt of state laws create myriad causes of action for alleged false product advertising and other misleading marketing statements. The plaintiffs’ bar also has invoked statutes like the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act to bring claims against companies for alleged failures to stop alleged human rights violations in their supply chains. These claims typically allege that the existence of company policies and programs aimed at helping end human rights violations are themselves a basis for liability. In making human capital management disclosures a part of ESG efforts (including whether to disclose numeric metrics or targets based on race or gender), companies may find themselves in a difficult place with respect to potential liability stemming from stated commitments to diversity and inclusion. On the one hand, companies that fail to achieve numeric targets they articulate (e.g., a certain percent or increase in diversity among management) may subject themselves to claims of having overpromised when discussing their future plans. Conversely, employers that achieve such targets may face “reverse discrimination” claims alleging that they abandoned race-based or gender-neutral employment practices to hit numbers set forth in their public statements.

Government Enforcement Litigation: Federal, state and local government regulators have taken multiple actions against companies based on their alleged participation in climate change, investments inconsistent with ESG goals, or alleged illegal activities. For instance, in 2019, the U.S. Department of Justice investigated auto companies for possible antitrust violations for agreeing with California to adopt emissions standards more restrictive than those established by federal law. While the investigation did not reveal wrongdoing, it underscores the creativity that proponents and opponents of ESG efforts can employ.

Implications For Corporate Decision-Makers

The creation, content, and implementation of ESG programs carries increasing litigation risks for corporations but it is unlikely that ESG programs will diminish is size or scale in the coming years given increased focus by Fortune 100s and 500s and increased regulation at the federal and state levels.

Sound planning, comprehensive legal compliance, and systematic auditing of ESG programs should be a key focus and process of all entities beginning or continuing their ESG journey.  As more and more companies adopt some level of corporative ESG strategy planning, compliance and auditing are some of the key imperatives in this new world of exposure to diminish and limit one’s exposure.

California Supreme Court Expresses Concern At Estrada Oral Argument About Manageability Of PAGA Claims

By Eden E. Anderson, Gerald L. Maatman, Jr., and Jennifer A. Riley 

Duane Morris Takeaways: In a case with significant consequences for employers, the California Supreme Court heard oral argument in Estrada v. Royalty Carpet Mills, No. S274340, on November 8, 2023.  In Estrada, the Supreme Court will decide whether trial courts have inherent authority to ensure that PAGA claims will be manageable at trial, and to strike or narrow such claims if they cannot be managed appropriately.  The Supreme Court signaled during oral argument its concerns with unwieldy PAGA claims that, if tried, would require a series of mini-trials over the course of years.  The Supreme Court further expressed concern with ensuring that employers’ due process rights to present affirmative defenses are protected, potentially signaling the issuance of an employer-friendly decision. A decision is expected in the next three months, and has the potential to transform the prosecution and defense of PAGA litigation.

Case Background

Jorge Estrada filed a putative class action and PAGA action against his former employer asserting meal period violations.  After two classes comprised of 157 individuals were certified, the parties tried the claims before a judge in a bench trial.  The trial court ultimately decertified the classes, finding there were too many individualized issues to support class treatment.  Although the trial court awarded relief to four individual plaintiffs, it dismissed the non-individual PAGA claim, concluding it was not manageable.

On appeal, Estrada argued that PAGA claims have no manageability requirement, and the Court of Appeal agreed in Estrada v. Royalty Carpet Mills, Inc., 76 Cal.App.5th 685 (2022).  The Court of Appeal reasoned that class action requirements do not apply in PAGA actions and, therefore, the manageability requirement rooted in class action procedure was inapplicable.  Further, the Court of Appeal opined that “[a]llowing courts to dismiss PAGA claims based on manageability would interfere with PAGA’s express design as a law enforcement mechanism.”  Id. at 712.  The Court of Appeal acknowledged the difficulty that employers and trial courts face with PAGA claims involving thousands of allegedly aggrieved employees, each with unique factual circumstances, but concluded that dismissal for lack of manageability was not an available tool for a trial court to utilize.

Estrada is contrary to the holding in Wesson v. Staples the Office Superstore, LLC, 68 Cal.App.5th 746 (2021), and created a split in authority.  In Wesson, the trial court struck a PAGA claim as unmanageable, and the Court of Appeal affirmed.  The claims at issue in Wesson involved the alleged misclassification of 345 store managers.  The employer’s exemption affirmative defense turned on individualized issues as to each manager’s performance of exempt versus non-exempt tasks, which varied based on a number of factors including store size, sales volume, staffing levels, labor budgets, store hours, customer traffic, all of which varied across the stores.  The split in authority prompted the California Supreme Court to grant review in Estrada, but not Wesson.

Oral Argument At The California Supreme Court

During oral argument on November 8, 2023, several Justices, most prominently Justices Liu and Jenkins, expressed skepticism that a trial court’s inherent powers include the ability to outright strike or dismiss an entire PAGA action for lack of manageability.  As Justice Liu commented, permitting trial courts such wide ranging power would shortchange the PAGA statute unless there is an overriding constitutional interest.

Several Justices also acknowledged that an employer has a due process right to present evidence to support its affirmative defenses and that, in certain cases, such evidence presentation might require a series of mini-trials over a period of years and wholly consume a trial court’s resources.  Justice Kruger asked questions of Estrada’s counsel that suggested the illogical nature of these issues telling trial courts as to what to do in terms of mini-trials, and how unwieldy such PAGA-related problems would evolve under such a set of principles.

Justice Groban also expressed concern about a PAGA case where multiple Labor Code violations are alleged, hundreds or thousands of employees are at issue, and different work sites and different types of employees ranging from janitors to accountants are implicated.  Justice Groban asked why, in that case, a trial court could not just limit the case to the accountants only.  Other justices raised similar concerns, with Chief Justice Guerrero asking Estrada’s counsel why the answer is that this is all subject to appellate review.

Implications For Employers

The constellation of the comments from the justices seemingly signals that the California Court may hold that trial courts possess inherent authority to ensure an employer’s right to due process is safeguarded, which necessarily encompasses the right to gauge the manageability of PAGA claims and to narrow them as appropriate.  As to whether such authority could include outright dismissal of an entire PAGA case, employers will have to wait and see.

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The opinions expressed on this blog are those of the author and are not to be construed as legal advice.

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