Tag Archives: IPA

VIETNAM AGRICULTURE FARMING 4.0 – Issues and Solutions – Impact of the Major Trade Agreements CPTPP, EUVNFTA and Investment Protection Agreement

A. Introduction

The biggest challenge in the agriculture and farming sector is to actually take the step to invest in new digital technologies. From a short perspective, this is associated with high costs for farmers. In the long term, however, it can increase yields and protect the environment significantly. So far, there have been three key phases in the development of agriculture and farming, namely mechanization, the introduction of mineral fertilizers and industrialization. The fourth phase is the currently evolving digitization. The positive effects of intelligent and digital agriculture can be significant.

When technological agriculture started (with utilization of satellite navigation and remote sensing to farm each square meter as efficiently and sustainably as possible), it seemed to be very unlikely for the ordinary farmer to gain benefits from it since the costs were too high. However, nowadays, it is possible for many farmers to collect a tremendous amount of data and use inexpensive small processors to make use of the information and to control equipment or monitor animals with it. Through digital smartness and connectivity, the agricultural machines can collect weather data, order spare parts or access detailed information about the field from a central, cloud based farm management software.

However, the technology development in the farming sector in Vietnam is still in its infancy. The digitalization has not reached Vietnams farming sector yet. The farmers are still using basic computers, standard internet information and basic information and communications technology in general. Many did not even reach the industrialization yet, using the telephone, light bulb, and the internal combustion engine. Still, a growing number of farmers is starting to adopt digital technology and data-driven innovations.

B. Precision Agriculture

Precision Agriculture (PA) is a key component of the agricultural digitization and means to apply the exact and correct amount of inputs like water, fertilizer, pesticides etc. at the correct time to the crop for increasing its productivity and maximizing its yields. It provides farmers with information to build up a record of their farm, helps to make decisions, promotes traceability and provides better marketing of farm products. Finally, it enhances the quality of the product itself.

Efficient farming must increase and the government should support investors of this sector. For instance, from 1900 to 1930 worldwide, each farmer produced enough food to feed about 26 people. In the 1990s, the so-called Green Revolution lead to new methods of genetic modification, therefore each farmer was able to feed about 155 people. The global population is increasing and by 2050 it is expected that the worldwide population will reach to almost 10 billion, thus food production must effectively double from the current magnitude. With the introduction of new technological improvements of precision farming, each farmer could be able to feed 265 people on the same acreage.

The first steps of PA came in the forms of satellite and aerial imagery, weather prediction, variable rate fertilizer application, and crop health indicators. The second wave collects the machine data for even more precise planting, topographical mapping and soil data. Another example of developed technology is the Geo-Localization. With this, field data can be captured. An analysis of soils, residual nitrogen, soil resistance and past harvests takes place. Further, by now, self-steering tractors do most of the work. The farmer only needs to intervene in emergencies. Through GPS connection, they spread fertilizer or plough land. Another notable innovation is a solar powered machine that identifies weeds and precisely kills them with a dose of herbicide or lasers.

C. Precision Livestock Farming

Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) aims to improve the efficiency of production. It helps the farmer and ensures the well-being of the animal through applying advanced information and communication technologies, targeted resource use and precise control of the production process. Through this technology, the contribution of each animal is streamlined. By this individual approach, the farmer can deliver better results in livestock farming. Those results can be quantitative, qualitative and sustainable.

PLF can significantly improve livestock farming. It can ensure animal welfare because the whole procedure is being documented on farms. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission can be reduced and environmental performance of farms can improve. Further, PLF can facilitate product segmentation and reduce illegal trading of livestock products.

D. Benefits and obstacles

Utilizing new technology can deliver more yields and greater environmental protection. For instance, farms in Germany using advanced digital technology have reported higher yields per hectare while reducing nitrogen levels considerably, as well as cutting herbicide and diesel use by 10% – 20%. Farmers thus obtain a return on their investment by saving on water, pesticides and fertilizer costs. The second large-scale benefit is to reduce the environmental harm. Applying the right amount of chemicals in the right place and at the right time benefits crops, soils and groundwater, and thus the entire crop cycle.

However, there are rarely any examples of successful commercialization of PLF technologies. There is currently an abundance of information available to livestock managers, but it is not generally structured in a way that can be applied readily.

The farmers and investors hesitation might be due the involving risks. The noted risks include financial failure because of unforeseen environment or market circumstances, damage to the farm infrastructure such as soils and pasture, compromises to animal health and welfare, and increased stress on farmers from managing the allegedly complicated systems. Thus, it is important to develop a management system that ensures only the most essential procedures are carried out, they are all carried out correctly and consistently, and in a way that controls risk.

E. Solutions

For the implementation of digital farming in Vietnam, a good collaboration between the public sector, industry players and the farming community is significantly important. In specific, decision-makers and the national government need to ensure that the basic digital infrastructure for rapidly growing data flows, in terms of network coverage and transmission rates in rural areas, is put in place. Further, the government must set incentives that boost investment in agriculture, especially during low time commodity prices. Lastly, it is important that the farmers accept and are able to handle the upcoming change. Not only is their attitude important, but also to ensure that they have the necessary digital skills.

The international market can only be reached by more transparency and traceability. For consumers and retailers it gets increasingly more important to trace the origin of their food. How was the crop cultivated, under what conditions did the animal grow up and be bred? At the same time, the gathering of this information can simplify the farmer´s documentation on compliance with legislation. Lastly, farmers need the security, that ownership and control of their data are protected. For this, a regulating contract law, that states that the data generated on a farm is the property of the farmer, needs to be settled.

F. Outlook on Major Trade Agreements TPP 11, EUVNFTA and Investment Protection Agreement

In January 2017, US President Donald Trump decided to withdraw from the US’ participation in the TPP. In November 2017, the remaining TPP members met at the APEC meetings and concluded about pushing forward the now called CPTPP (TPP 11) without the USA. The provision of the agreement specified that it enters into effect 60 days after ratification by at least 50% of the signatories (six of the eleven participating countries). The sixth nation to ratify the deal was Australia on 31 October 2018, therefore the agreement will finally come into force on 30 December 2018. Recently, on the 12th November 2018, Vietnam has officially became the seventh member of the CPTPP.

The CPTPP is targeting to eliminate tariff lines and custom duties among member states on certain goods and commodities to 100%. This will make the Vietnamese market more attractive due to technology advances and the reduction of production costs. The effects of the TPP 11 promise great benefits for the agriculture sector in Vietnam and will support Vietnam’s national agriculture to transform into a self-sufficient and competitive sector. Furthermore, sustainable environments are a primary concern of the CPTPP agreement. With the Most-Favored Nation Treatment principle, the TPP 11 is ensuring a fair competition, which will attract new foreign investments as well as support for the agriculture sector in its restructuring process. Moreover, national farmers must adopt high-developed technologies in nutrients and animal healthcare to be competitive. This will lead to more safety and trust of the consumer in the agriculture market in Vietnam.

One another notable major trade agreement is the European Union Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EUVNFTA). The EUVNFTA offers great opportunity to access new markets for both the EU and Vietnam and to bring more capital into Vietnam due easier access and reduction of almost all tariffs of 99%, as well as obligation to provide better conditions for workers.
Both agreements promise great benefits for the agricultural and farming sector in Vietnam. The food industry is a very hesitating industry in general. Naturally, farmers usually invest part of their gains in technology. However, they buy just the ordinary machinery instead of new technology like software or sensors. The trade agreements could lead to the end of this hesitation and finally demonstrate the economic benefits of the new technologies. Further, the co-ordination between researches, developers and technology suppliers of PLF tools could be streamlined.

To enable at least some parts of the FTA to be ratified more speedily at EU level, the EU and Vietnam agreed to take provisions on investment, for which Member State ratification is required, out of the main agreement and put them in a separate Investment Protection Agreement (IPA). Currently both the FTA and IPA are expected to be formally submitted to the Council in late 2018, possibly enabling the FTA to come into force in the second half of 2019.

Furthermore, the Investor State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) will ensure highest standards of legal certainty and enforceability and protection for investors. Every investor should use these standards. It is going to be applied under the TPP 11 and the EUVNFTA. Under that provision, for investment related disputes, the investors have the right to bring claims to the host country by means of international arbitration. The arbitration proceedings shall be made public as a matter of transparency in conflict cases.

Further securities come with the Government Procurement Agreement (GPA), which is going to be part of the TPP 11 and the EUVNFTA. The GPA in both agreements, mainly deals with the requirement to treat bidders or domestic bidders with investment capital and Vietnamese bidders equally when a government buys goods or requests for a service worth over the specified threshold. Vietnam undertakes to timely publish information on tender, allow sufficient time for bidders to prepare for and submit bids, maintain confidentiality of tenders. The GPA in both agreements also requires its Parties assess bids based on fair and objective principles, evaluate and award bids only based on criteria set out in notices and tender documentation, create an effective regime for complaints and settling disputes, etc.

This instrument will ensure a fair competition and projects of quality and efficient developing processes.

If you have any question on the above, please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com. Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you very much!

VIETNAM – BANKING AND FINANCING SUSTAINABLE GROWTH – Issues and Solutions – Impact of the Key Trade Agreements CPTPP, EUVNFTA and Investment Protection Agreement

A. Introduction

Vietnam is one of the countries in Asia with the most impressive economic growth. Inflation remains well controlled and foreign exchange reserves are at their highest levels in years and they continue to rise. The effective and economic state administration has been recognized by the international markets, most recently with the appreciation of the Vietnamese credit rating by Fitch Ratings. In the future, it is expected that Vietnam will continue to show strong economic growth. A particularly strong area is the electronics production. In addition, financing sustainable growth and providing credit and good financial services is essential to all who need it.

The focus of the government and the State Bank of Vietnam (SBV) should be geared to lending in strong sectors. This implies that quotas should be distributed appropriate and that there should be no upper limits in a given sector. Only with this credit can be provided sufficiently in the priority sectors. This will benefit strong and profitable companies while controlling and reducing risk in critical sectors.

In addition, the focus is on recapitalization and consolidation of the financial sector, which leads to fewer but stronger banks. Furthermore, the digitization of the Vietnamese economy continues to increase, with the next step being to create a comprehensive legal framework that further promotes digital development, including the use of the forthcoming national biometric identity system.

In the future, a change in banking regulations should be also considered. The rules are currently issued on the basis of basic laws such as the Civil Code. As a result, opening accounts for companies that are not legal entities is difficult. Addressing the above issues will, in the long term, lead to a strengthening of the banking sector. This will bring more and more FDI´s into the country and Vietnamese people and companies will benefit from it.

B. Decree 116 and related issues

With regard to Decree 116, there are problems in lending that banks have. There are currently challenges related to public information and verification. It is very time-consuming for the banks to obtain the relevant information from the client, there are only limited independent sources of information, and there are different definitions of the criteria used to identify beneficiaries in Vietnam and international common practices.

Banks are facing the difficult situation of being able to verify that a natural person owns 10% or more charter capital in a legal entity. Natural persons who hold 20% or more charter capital to companies whose equity capital is more than 10%; private business owners; and other persons actually controlling the company, in accordance with the provisions for determining beneficial owners referred to in Article 5.1, Decree 116/2013 / ND-CP.

The banks have difficulties in how to verify that an individual holds 10% or more charter capital in a legal entity, individuals holding 20% or more charter capital in entities having more than 10% equity in the legal entity, private business owners and other individuals who actually control the entity, under regulations on identifying beneficial owners referred to in Article 5.1, Decree 116/2013/ ND-CP.

To solve this problem, the State Bank of Vietnam (SBV) could make the following arrangements. Only the ultimate beneficial owner holding directly and indirectly 25% or more of the charter capital must be identified. Further, it is not necessary to identify ultimate beneficial owners in case the customer is rated as low-risk by financial institutions incorporated in Financial Action Task Force member nations, because these institutions have advanced anti-money laundering and financing terrorism control systems, and are monitored by relevant host country regulators.

C. Outlook on Circular 19/2014/TT – NHNN

Circular 19/2014/TT – NHNN contains revisions for foreign exchange control in direct investment and portfolio investment to be consistent with latest rules on foreign investment. One of most frequent issues related to foreign-invested companies is the Investment certificate being used as the only reference to identify a directly investing business for foreign investment capital account opening purposes. However, this does often not reflect properly the nature of the investment activity and existing regulations on investment activities (Investment Law of Nov. 26, 2014, Decree 118/2015/ND-CP, providing details and implementing guidance for specific clauses of the Investment Law).

Furthermore, given the development of derivative markets in Vietnam, the Circular can be revised to cover specifically derivative securities and include relevant reporting indicators for investment in these securities by foreign investors.

D. Outlook on the Major Trade Agreements TPP 11, EUVNFTA and Investment Protection Agreement

In January 2017, US President Donald Trump decided to withdraw from the US participation in the TPP. In November 2017, the remaining TPP members met at the APEC meetings and concluded about pushing forward the now called CPTPP (TPP 11) without the USA. The provision of the agreement specified that it enters into effect 60 days after ratification by at least 50% of the signatories (six of the eleven participating countries). The sixth nation to ratify the deal was Australia on 31 October 2018, therefore the agreement will finally come into force on 30 December 2018. Recently, on the 12th November 2018, Vietnam has officially become the seventh member of the CPTPP.

The CPTPP is targeting to eliminate tariff lines and custom duties among member states on certain goods and commodities to 100%. This will stimulate domestic reforms in many areas, especially the financial sector. As a result, the above mentioned issues could be addressed gradually and therefore more FDI´s will come to Vietnam.

One another notable major trade agreement is the European Union Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EUVNFTA). The EUVNFTA offers great opportunity to access new markets for both the EU and Vietnam and to bring more capital into Vietnam due easier access and reduction of almost all tariffs of 99%, as well as obligation to provide better conditions for workers. In addition, the EUVNFTA will boost the most economic sectors in Vietnam. Due to easier opportunity on making business, trade and sustainable development will be a good consequence for an even more dynamic economy and even better investment environment in Vietnam in general and especially in the financing sector.

To enable at least some parts of the FTA to be ratified more speedily at EU level, the EU and Vietnam agreed to take provisions on investment, for which Member State ratification is required, out of the main agreement and put them in a separate Investment Protection Agreement (IPA). Currently both the FTA and IPA are expected to be formally submitted to the Council in late 2018, possibly enabling the FTA to come into force in the second half of 2019.

Furthermore, the Investor State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) will ensure highest standards of legal certainty and enforceability and protection for investors. Every investor should use these standards. It is going to be applied under the TPP 11 and the EUVNFTA. Under that provision, for investment related disputes, the investors have the right to bring claims to the host country by means of international arbitration. The arbitration proceedings shall be made public as a matter of transparency in conflict cases. In relation to the TPP, the scope of the ISDS was reduced by removing references to “investment agreements” and “investment authorization” as result of the discussion about the TPP’s future on the APEC meetings on 10th and 11th November 2017.

Further securities come with the Government Procurement Agreement (GPA), which is going to be part of the TPP 11 and the EUVNFTA. The GPA in both agreements, mainly deals with the requirement to treat bidders or domestic bidders with investment capital and Vietnamese bidders equally when a government buys goods or requests for a service worth over the specified threshold. Vietnam undertakes to timely publish information on tender, allow sufficient time for bidders to prepare for and submit bids, maintain confidentiality of tenders. The GPA in both agreements also requires its Parties assess bids based on fair and objective principles, evaluate and award bids only based on criteria set out in notices and tender documentation, create an effective regime for complaints and settling disputes, etc.

This instrument will ensure a fair competition and projects of quality and efficient developing processes.

If you have any question on the above, please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com. Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you very much!

Vietnam – Healthcare and Medical Devices – Investment – With Outlook on the Major Trade Agreements CPTPP, EUVNFTA and Investment Protection Agreement

A. Overview of the future of Vietnam´s healthcare sector

There is no denying that Vietnam truly is an attractive investment destination in South East Asia. It has great potential to develop a qualitative, self-sustaining life science sector. Improvements on the healthcare sector will lead to several benefits. With increasing focus on healthcare, manufacturing, service providers, clinical research organizations and others are being stimulated. As a result, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are boosted and exports could replace the need for foreign aid by attracting sustainable FDIs and PPPs.

Of particular importance for a positive development is the close cooperation between the major stakeholders from the private and public sector. In this process, certain core goals should be set. Significantly, it is important to ensure swift, sustainable access to medical treatment and to urgently improve the quality of the treatment process. High-quality domestic treatments not only improve patient satisfaction but also improve one’s own economy by counteracting outgoing medical tourism.

Furthermore, it should be ensured that the existing investors remain in Vietnam and new ones are pulled ashore. To do this, investors must be shown that the Vietnamese market does not contain undetected risks, but is stable and predictable. Further, integrate opportunities for collaborations and partnerships to develop local capability.

B. Outpatient: Home care and home-treatment

One major issue regarding Vietnams Healthcare sector is the limited capacity in hospitals. There is a gap between bed capacity and demand of inpatient treatment. The Minstry of Health has his hands full to counteract the overloading of hospitals. Even institutions with larger bed capacity have eventually set up a home care service to enhance the follow-up monitoring of chronic and long-term illnesses for patients that have been released from the hospital.

The patients in Vietnam are financially overburdened with the costs of treatment, therefore affordable treatment is needed. This however, has to be reached without the loss of quality. Especially the indirect costs of healthcare, such as travelling, meals during hospitalization and loss of income during treatment put patients and their families under enormous financial pressure. Due to the overload and the fact, that the home care services are not fully developed yet, patients tend to take care for themselves with the help of their family. This causes eventually potential additional health complications due to the lack of professional follow-up. Furthermore, patients will return often back to the hospital and subsequently, in some cases, with more severe conditions.

The healthcare expanses are moreover, as in almost every country, a significant burden for the household.

Overall, professional homecare programs and access to them should be simplified and improved to counteract hospital congestion. This is especially necessary for the chronically ill. Home care and home-treatment can help to reduce public spending on chronic diseases and thus spare the health budget. At the same time, easier access helps the chronically ill.

C. Implementation

There are two major requirements for putting the whole thing into practice. Firstly, the creation of a clear legal framework. It contains incentives for small and large scale investors and creates transparency. This encourages multinational companies to invest and transfer their know-how to Vietnam, eventually ultimately work closely with the local companies. Secondly, to streamline the administrative process to shorten the process of delivering new, high-quality patient care solutions, and to respond to the growing need for a growing Vietnamese population for rapid and sustainable access.

D. Medical Devices Industry Code of Conduct

Background of the Code of Conduct for medical devices are the various risks associated with the industry, in particular unfair competition between industry players. The Code is intended to facilitate ethical interactions among members of society who develop, manufacture, sell, distribute or distribute medical technology in Vietnam and individuals and organizations that apply, recommend, buy or prescribe medical technologies in Vietnam. The content of the Code of Conduct should focus on 1) strict compliance with laws and regulations in the area; 2) prioritization of people and health and safety of patients and 3) promoting scientific and educational activities to best benefit the patient.

For multinational companies, the compliance area is usually very pronounced and strict. It is therefore particularly important to invest in an ethical business environment, especially when investing in high-risk jurisdictions. The commitment to uphold high ethical standards would certainly bring about long-term benefits for the health sector in Vietnam and attract more investors.

E. Outlook on Major Trade Agreements TPP 11, EUVNFTA and Investment Protection Agreement

In January 2017, US President Donald Trump decided to withdraw from the US’ participation in the TPP. In November 2017, the remaining TPP members met at the APEC meetings and concluded about pushing forward the now called CPTPP (TPP 11) without the USA. The provision of the agreement specified that it enters into effect 60 days after ratification by at least 50% of the signatories (six of the eleven participating countries). The sixth nation to ratify the deal was Australia on 31 October 2018, therefore the agreement will finally come into force on 30 December 2018. Recently, on the 12th November 2018, Vietnam has officially become the seventh member of the CPTPP.

The CPTPP is targeting to eliminate tariff lines and custom duties among member states on certain goods and commodities to 100%. An increase of trade will have great influence to the health- and medical sector. The agreement is suitable to support Public-Private-Partnerships (PPPs), which could lead to a positive impact in development of innovative technologies of medical devices and facilitate the transfer of necessary know-how. Lower or no trade tariffs can lead to lower import costs for the essential components of medical devices. This, in turn, results in lower acquisition costs for the medical practices and hospitals, thus eventually lowering the treatment costs.

The annexes of the CPTPP (TBT chapter) deal with specific challenges of trading regarding pharmaceuticals, medical devices and technology products. The provisions commit the Members to define what medical products are and when they are subject to the state laws. These information have to be published. Furthermore, the annexes will help to optimize regulatory approvals and make the regulations clearer. Authorization decisions are made based on certain risk-based criteria. Moreover, the regulations help to ensure timely mitigation measures if a product application is not approved or is deemed deficient. Due to this new transparency, and the tariff elimination, the CPTPP will bring great benefits for all traders of medical devices, employees in the medical industry as well as for patients.

A specific example would be, that Canada currently faces tariffs of 7% imposed by Vietnam regarding exports of life sciences products such as medicines in doses for retail sale. With the agreement to become effective, these tariffs will be fully eliminated. As a result, Canada and other countries are exporting more and more products to Vietnam, gradually improving equipment in Vietnam’s medical facilities.

One another notable major trade agreement is the European Union Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EUVNFTA). The EUVNFTA offers great opportunity to access new markets for both the EU and Vietnam and to bring more capital into Vietnam due easier access and reduction of almost all tariffs of 99%, as well as obligation to provide better conditions for workers. In addition, the EUVNFTA will boost the most economic sectors in Vietnam. Both agreements promise great benefits for the health- and medicine sector.

To enable at least some parts of the FTA to be ratified more speedily at EU level, the EU and Vietnam agreed to take provisions on investment, for which Member State ratification is required, out of the main agreement and put them in a separate Investment Protection Agreement (IPA). Currently both the FTA and IPA are expected to be formally submitted to the Council in late 2018, possibly enabling the FTA to come into force in the second half of 2019.

Furthermore, the Investor State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) will ensure highest standards of legal certainty and enforceability and protection for investors. These standards should be used by every investor. It is going to be applied under the TPP 11 and the EUVNFTA. Under that provision, for investment related disputes, the investors have the right to bring claims to the host country by means of international arbitration. The arbitration proceedings shall be made public as a matter of transparency in conflict cases. In relation to the TPP, the scope of the ISDS was reduced by removing references to “investment agreements” and “investment authorization” as result of the discussion about the TPP’s future on the APEC meetings on 10th and 11th November 2017.

Further securities come with the Government Procurement Agreement (GPA), which is going to be part of the TPP 11 and the EUVNFTA. The GPA in both agreements, mainly deals with the requirement to treat bidders or domestic bidders with investment capital and Vietnamese bidders equally when a government buys goods or requests for a service worth over the specified threshold. Vietnam undertakes to timely publish information on tender, allow sufficient time for bidders to prepare for and submit bids, maintain confidentiality of tenders. The GPA in both agreements also requires its Parties assess bids based on fair and objective principles, evaluate and award bids only based on criteria set out in notices and tender documentation, create an effective regime for complaints and settling disputes, etc.

This instrument will ensure a fair competition and projects of quality and efficient developing processes.

If you have any question on the above, please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com. Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you very much!

Vietnam – Power Energy Action Plan – With Outlook on the Major Trade Agreements CPTPP, EUVNFTA and Investment Protection Agreement

A. Overview of the Power Master Plan 8

Vietnam contains huge potential regarding the production of clean energy. It has best conditions for developing solar power due to being one of the countries with the most sun hours during the year and best conditions for creating wind power due to 3000km coastline. As a result, Vietnam in general, is able to attract many Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) for developing clean energy projects.

Therefore, the aim of the current Power Master Plan 8 (PMP8) is to develop power sources, in which renewable energy (wind, solar, bio) will be prioritized, in order to stepwise increase the proportion of electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Core elements are to establish links between international and domestic companies. Thus, the international finance and technology should be connected to the domestic banks and the expertise of domestic companies. In addition, a market must be developed that attracts large-scale companies and small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) equally.

Furthermore, there will be improvements to the solar power market and the Solar Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) model, which could apply from 1 July 2019. If the PPA is improved to meet the standards of international and domestic banks, the cost of financing solar power plants can be reduced. Feed-in tariffs could provide 2 billion USD in foreign investment in solar energy by 2020.

The new PPA should focus on the key areas termination payments, curtailment and failure to take or pay by Vietnam Electricity (EVN), dispute resolution / arbitration clauses and the application of the feed-in-tariff for 20 years the PPA for new solar projects, which reach their commercial operation date by 30th June 2021 with a reduced feed in tariff. These improvements should equally apply to the standard PPAs for wind power, biomass and waste to energy.

In addition, a government market-driven electricity price system should be created, which includes a welfare state price system and thus supports low-income citizens. To make this possible, the price for the middle class has to be raised. Furthermore, the need for government guarantees must be reduced. In order to counteract electricity wastefulness, incentives for private sector investment in distributed clean energy generation and energy efficiency with fair and transparent electricity tariffs are necessary.

With regard to the price of electricity, there will be essentially three types of movement. First, the daytime hourly tariff will be redesigned for commercial and industrial consumers. This is intended to reduce the peak load of the transmission system and transmission losses. Second, regional differences in retail tariffs are developed. Third, a market-based electricity tariff is set, which contains flexible regulations and thus allows adjustments and increases in efficiency.

It will be important for the government to upgrade transmission and distribution. A regulator regime is to build, which allows and encourages construction and use of bio-mass, solar, wind and other clean sources of power generation for private and public users – office, residential, manufacturing, communities, and industrial – small scale and large scale, and to speed up decision making and set predicative procedures to encourage development of off shore gas, LNG, efficiencies, and renewables.

B. Future recommendations for VL Direct Power Purchase Agreement

The Application of PPA should be extended and even used for commercial power consumers (offices, hotels, resorts and supermarkets), hence they can reduce their electricity costs. The project aim should be to make a major investment in clean energy generation. Guidelines could be to reach at least 300MW of new clean energy generation in 2018/2019 and to invest about 400 Million USD.

The Electricity Regulatory Authority of Vietnam (ERAV) and EVN must define as soon as possible a so-called “wheeling fee”. Wheeling is the transportation of electric energy (megawatt-hours) from within an electrical grid to an electrical load outside the grid boundaries. At least for the first 5 years of operation the fee should be fixed. Afterwards, an increase is possible in agreed in conjunction with business groups and WE.

C. Outlook on Major Trade Agreements TPP 11, EUVNFTA and Investment Protection Agreement

In January 2017, US President Donald Trump decided to withdraw from the US’ participation in the TPP. In November 2017, the remaining TPP members met at the APEC meetings and concluded about pushing forward the now called CPTPP (TPP 11) without the USA. The provision of the agreement specified that it enters into effect 60 days after ratification by at least 50% of the signatories (six of the eleven participating countries). The sixth nation to ratify the deal was Australia on 31 October 2018, therefore the agreement will finally come into force on 30 December 2018. Recently, on the 12th November 2018, Vietnam has officially become the seventh member of the CPTPP.

The CPTPP is targeting to eliminate tariff lines and custom duties among member states on certain goods and commodities to 100%. This will make the Vietnamese market more attractive due to technology advances, reduction of production costs and because of the high demand on renewable energy. Sustainable environments are a primary concern of the CPTPP agreement.

An increase of trade should not mean negative influence to the environment. In contrary, due to the increased focus on the need for energy efficiency and reduced emissions renewable energy could experience a crucial growth. The agreement is suitable to support Public-Private-Partnerships (PPPs), which could lead to a positive impact in development of innovative technologies and alternative energy sources. Lower or no trade tariffs can lead to lower import costs for the essential components of renewable energy production. This, in turn, results in lower investment costs and lower production costs, thus increasing the cost-effectiveness of introducing renewable energy technology.

One another notable major trade agreement is the European Union Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EUVNFTA). The EUVNFTA offers great opportunity to access new markets for both the EU and Vietnam and to bring more capital into Vietnam due easier access and reduction of almost all tariffs of 99%, as well as obligation to provide better conditions for workers, which is a key aspect in terms of working at power plants. In addition, the EUVNFTA will boost the most economic sectors in Vietnam. Moreover, the EUVNFTA will provide certain tax reductions to 0% for clean technology equipment as well as equal treatment for companies. Due to easier opportunity on making business, trade and sustainable development will be a good consequence for an even more dynamic economy and even better investment environment in Vietnam in general and especially in the power/energy industry.

Both agreements promise great benefits for the energy sector in Vietnam and will help the PMP8 to connect international to domestic companies. The elimination of the tariff lines and custom duties are advantages to major companies and SMEs alike.

To enable at least some parts of the FTA to be ratified more speedily at EU level, the EU and Vietnam agreed to take provisions on investment, for which Member State ratification is required, out of the main agreement and put them in a separate Investment Protection Agreement (IPA). Currently both the FTA and IPA are expected to be formally submitted to the Council in late 2018, possibly enabling the FTA to come into force in the second half of 2019.

Furthermore, the Investor State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) will ensure highest standards of legal certainty and enforceability and protection for investors. We alert investors to make use of these standards! We can advise how to best do that! It is going to be applied under the TPP 11 and the EUVNFTA. Under that provision, for investment related disputes, the investors have the right to bring claims to the host country by means of international arbitration. The arbitration proceedings shall be made public as a matter of transparency in conflict cases. In relation to the TPP, the scope of the ISDS was reduced by removing references to “investment agreements” and “investment authorization” as result of the discussion about the TPP’s future on the APEC meetings on 10th and 11th November 2017.

Further securities come with the Government Procurement Agreement (GPA), which is going to be part of the TPP 11 and the EUVNFTA. The GPA in both agreements, mainly deals with the requirement to treat bidders or domestic bidders with investment capital and Vietnamese bidders equally when a government buys goods or requests for a service worth over the specified threshold. Vietnam undertakes to timely publish information on tender, allow sufficient time for bidders to prepare for and submit bids, maintain confidentiality of tenders. The GPA in both agreements also requires its Parties assess bids based on fair and objective principles, evaluate and award bids only based on criteria set out in notices and tender documentation, create an effective regime for complaints and settling disputes, etc.

This instrument will ensure a fair competition and projects of quality and efficient developing processes.

If you have any question on the above, please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com. Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you very much!

Lawyer in Vietnam Dr. Oliver Massmann – INTERVIEW WITH ViTV CHANNEL ON MAJOR IMPACT OF INVESTMENT PROTECTION AGREEMENT AND FREE TRADE AGREEMENT EUROPEAN UNION AND VIETNAM

1 – Viet Nam and the EU officially concluded the legal review process of the Vietnam-EU Free Trade Agreement as well as agreed on the contents of the Vietnam-EU Agreement on Investment Protection (IPA). How do you assess the context of this action?

The legal review is concluded in the context where the EU continues to be Vietnam’s 3rd largest trading partner and the 2nd largest export market of Vietnam. Two-way trade has increased by 12 times from USD4.1 billion in 2000 to over USD50.4 billion in 2017.
In addition, Vietnam’s GDP in 2017 reached 6.81%, a record breaking in 10 years. Recent Vietnam’s economic developments and better access to the EU markets have been one of the underlying reasons that both sides wanted to speed up the finalization of the agreement, this is done now.

2- Why does the EU want to split EVFTA and IPA into two separate agreements?

It is due to a change in the EU’s ratification procedures of free trade agreements. Specifically, as a result of the ECJ’s opinion on the EU- Singapore FTA, the Union will have exclusive competence for the common commercial policy, while issues related to non-FDI investment and investor-to-state dispute settlement will be shared competence between the Union and the member states. Thus, in order to reap the benefits of the EVFTA as soon as possible, the commercial part (EVFTA) will be proceeded first pending the finalization of the IPA and its ratification of member states’ parliaments, which takes longer and harder to estimate timing.

3- Could you please give us more detail about the IPA agreement? How will Vietnam businessmen be affected by this agreement? (Advantages and challenges)

In short, the IPA will provide levels of legal certainty for foreign investors that are unmatched in FDI history in Vietnam. The basic content of the IPA will be the ISDS mechanism. In disputes regarding investment (for example, expropriation without compensation, discrimination of investment) between the investor and the host state, an investor is allowed to bring the dispute to the Investment Tribunal for settlement. The final arbitral award is binding and enforceable without any question from the local courts regarding its validity. This is an advantage for European investors considering the fact that the percentage of annulled foreign arbitral awards in Vietnam remains relatively high for different reasons.

4- What is the next step to bring EVFTA into effect?

The EVFTA will be translated into Vietnamese and main languages of the EU. Then it will be submitted to ratification by competent body of each party. For Vietnam, it will be the National Assembly who ratifies the EVFTA. In the EU, the Commission has already submitted a proposal on signing and ratification of the EVFTA to the EU Council and published all texts.

5. For EVFTA, although not formally effective, this agreement has had a positive impact on relations between the EU and Vietnam. How do you rate this?

Nearly all customs duties – over 99% of the tariff lines will be eliminated for Vietnam. Vietnam’s products will have great opportunities to access EU’s market at more competitive price. According to MOIT Minister Tran Tuan Anh, exports from Vietnam into the EU could increase by $16 billion in the first one or two years, and reach $75-76 billion in 2028. The deal would also benefit the EU, increasing the region’s income by $34.4 billion in the long run.

6- The EU said it would help Vietnam to improve its capacity to effectively utilize the FTAs after being signed and put into practice. So what are the weaknesses that Vietnam needs to improve to be ready for EVFTA and IPA?

Vietnam needs to review the whole domestic legal framework to make sure there is no inconsistency with the EVFTA. The legal framework should also be ready to fully implement the EVFTA so as to avoid further disputes or bottlenecks in implementation.
In addition, domestic enterprises are still not familiar with the EVFTA. To take fully advantage of the agreement, Vietnam needs to conduct several trainings and seminars so that they are aware of the EVFTA’s benefits and how to utilize the agreement for their own business. Small and medium enterprises also need to improve management quality, workforce skills, competitiveness, etc. to survive in the domestic market before the wave of EU investment.

7 – How do you expect the official time that the EVFTA will take effect?

The EVFTA has been signed and will be ratified at the beginning of next year and will take effect in the same year 2019. It will contribute to make Vietnam the next manufacturing hub in Asia because China and the EU do not have a Free Trade Agreement. Vietnam will be “the next China” with regard to manufacturing for decades to come.
Please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above. Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.