Tag Archives: project

VIETNAM – SOLAR POWER – Breaking News – PRIME MINISTER’s FINAL WORD ON POSSIBLE COD EXTENSION FOR SOLAR POWER PROJECTS IN NINH THUAN PROVINCE – WHAT YOU MUST KNOW:

Solar energy industry in Vietnam remains one of the most legally unpredictable areas as the saga around the possible COD extension appears to re-emerge. On 8 August 2018, the Government issued a Resolution No. 104/NQ-CP summarizing the decisions that this authority reached in its regular meeting in July 2018. In this 12-page long document, the Government only briefly addressed the issue of possible COD extension for PV energy projects in Ninh Thuan (Point 14). Accordingly, it appears that after many backs-and-forths, the long proposed COD extension for Ninh Thuan solar power projects will be approved.

This proposal has been through a lot of hectic struggles. The market would recall that rumor for such extension was first emerged in June 2018, before an official letter from the Prime Minister Office killed it off in July 2018. Now, it appears that the advocates for COD extension finally prevail as this is the first ever such COD extension is approved by a legal document issued by the Government rather than quasi-judicial official letters.

It must be noted that the language under Resolution No. 104 does not provide a certainty as it still calls for MPI to finalize another legal document to formalize this extension. However, Resolution No. 104 provides a clear mandate that MPI must finalize such legal document prior to 20 August 2018. As this article is published, such document should be already in place but there is no such information available on the public domain to confirm it. That means the players in this market will need to take every movement by the Government with a pinch of salt in light of internal struggles that we have witnessed.

A very important note is that this COD extension is not for every one. First, it only limits to solar power projects in Ninh Thuan province, which adds up so far to 2,000 MW. So, a project owner in Binh Thuan would need to pass this news as reference only even though we learn that many players and watchdogs are pushing for a nationwide COD extension, expecting to be out end of this year. Second, only projects which are already in the master plan approved by the MOIT and the Government will receive this treatment. That means, new and upcoming projects will not receive this COD extension.

As experience will tell, there will be a lot more to learn from this new area for both sides, government and the investors. Please stay tuned for more updates!

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If you have any question on the above, please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com . Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you very much!

Lawyer in Vietnam Dr. Oliver Massmann THE WORLD BANK IS ASKING DUANE MORRIS ON GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC PROCUREMENT HERE ARE OUR ANSWERS:

Applicable Legal Framework and Reforms Update
1. Which is the entity that conducts procurement for the authority that owns the majority of roads in Vietnam ?
The Ministry of Transport
2. Are you aware of any change (in practice or in laws/regulations/procedures) related to public procurement between June 1, 2017 and May 1, 2018? For example: amendments to applicable public procurement laws, enactment and/or implementation of new regulations, implementation or improvement of e-procurement platforms, changes to the bid security and performance guarantee framework, etc.
Yes. Law on supporting small and medium enterprise issued by the National Assembly on 12 June 2017, taking effect from 01 January 2018
3. Please provide a list of the laws, regulations and other binding materials (including mandatory standard procurement documents and contracts) that regulate public procurement in Vietnam. Please include legislation or other binding materials promulgated at the national/federal level as well as any additional legislation that is applicable to the procuring entity described in Section 1.
The Civil Code of Vietnam No. 91/2015/QH13 by the National Assembly of Vietnam dated 24 November 2015 (“Civil Code”);
Construction Law No. 50/2014/QH13 by the National Assembly dated 18 June 2014 (“Construction Law”);
Law on Bidding No. 43/2013/QH13 by National Assembly dated 26 November 2013 (“Bidding Law”);
Law on Public Investment No. 49/2014/QH13 of the National Assembly dated 18 June 2014 (“Law on Public Investment”);
Commercial Law No. 36/2005/Qh11 by the National Assembly dated 14 June 2005 (“Commercial Law”);
Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP by the Government dated 26 June 2014 guiding Law on Bidding (“Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP”);
Decree No. 37/2015/ND-CP by the Government dated 22 April 2015 on detailing construction contracts (“Decree No. 37/2015/ND-CP”);
Decree No. 46/2015/ND-CP by the Government dated on 12 May 2015 on managing the quality and maintenance of construction works (“Decree No. 46/2015/ND-CP”);
Decree No. 30/2015/ND-CP by the Government dated 17 March 2015 on detailing certain provisions of the Law on Bidding on selection of bidders (“Decree No. 30/2015/ND-CP”);
Decree No. 15/2015/ND-CP by the Government dated 14 February 2015 on public-private partnership investment (“Decree No. 15/2015/ND-CP”);
Circular No. 04/2017/TT-BKHDT by the Ministry of Planning and Investment dated 15 November 2017 on detailing the selection of bidders via the national biding portal (“Circular No. 04/2017/TT-BKHDT”);
Circular No. 26/2016/TT-BXD by the Ministry of Construction dated 26 October 2016 on detailing certain provisions on management of quality and maintenance of construction works (“Circular No. 26/2016/TT-BXD”);
Circular No. 10/2016/TT-BKHDT of the Ministry of Planning and Investment on detailing the supervision, following up and examination of bidding activities (“Circular No. 10/2016/TT-BKHDT”);
– Circular No. 23/2015/TT_BKHDT by the Ministry of Planning and Investment dated 21 December 2015 on detailing the making the evaluation report on bidding documents (“Circular No. 23/2015/TT-BKHDDT”);
– Circular No. 10/2015/TT-BKHDT of the Ministry of Planning and Investment dated 26 October 2015 on detailing the plan for bidder selection (“Circular No. 10/2015/TT-BKHDT”);
– Circular No. 01/2015/TT-BKHDT by the Ministry of Planning and Investment dated 14 February 2015 on detailing the preparation of Invitation dossier for Concern, Invitation Dossier for Bidding, and Request dossider for consultancy services (“Circular No. 01/2015/TT-BKHDT”);
– Circular No. 17/2010/TT-BKH by the Ministry of Planning and Investment dated 22 July 2010 detailing a pilot online bidding program (“Circular No. 17/2010/TT-BKH”);
– Official Letter No. 5356/BKHDT-QLDT by the Ministry of Planning and Investment dated 18 August 2014 on registration of bidder’s information on national bidding network system;
– Official Letter No. 4962/BKHDT-QLDT by the Ministry of Planning and Investment dated 31 July 2014 on the implementation of Law on Bidding No. 43/2013/QH13 regarding investors selection;
– Official Letter No. 4054/BKHDT-QLDT by the Ministry of Planning and Investment dated 7 June 2014 on implementation of Law on Bidding No. 43/2013/QH13 and Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP;
– Official Letter No. 5186/BKHDT-QLDT by the Ministry of Planning and Investment dated 11 August 2014 guiding to carry out to provide and publish bidding information in the transitional period.
E-procurement Platforms
4. If one or several electronic procurement portal(s) (i.e., an official website(s) specifically and exclusively dedicated to public procurement) are in operation in Vietnam, please mark at which level such portals are available.
National level – Link: www.muasamcong.mpi.gov.vn
5. If multiple electronic procurement platforms are available, which one would most likely be used for a tender like the one describled in Sections 1?
6. If a procurement portal is used by the procuring entity, how many works contracts are procured through the portal?
Less than 25%
7. If electronic procurement portals are available, please indicate which of the following actions can be performed through each portal:
Accessing notices on procurement opportunities: Procuring entity and bidders
Accessing tender documentation: Procuring entity and bidders
Accessing tender documentation: Procuring entity and bidders
Asking the procuring entity for clarifications: Bidders
Submitting tenders: Bidders
Submitting bid security: Bidders
Opening bids: Procuring entity
Notifying decisions (clarification, award,etc.): Procuring entity
Accessing award decisions: Procuring entity and bidders
Accessing explanations of award decisions: Procuring entity and bidders
Submitting performance guarantees: Bidders
Signing the contract: Procuring entity and bidders
Phases of the Procurement Process
The rest of this questionnaire follows the chronological evolution of a procurement cycle, starting with the process the procuring entity undertakes to assess its needs and secure the budget. The questionnaire then explores the steps that a local company would have to undertake in order to: (i) secure a government contract; (ii) deliver the agreed-upon works; and (iii) obtain payment. The following section focuses on planning and budget.
Phase 1: Budgeting and Needs Assessment
For the definition of “procuring entity”, please refer to Section 1.
8. When the procuring entity prepares to advertise a new procurement opportunity, does it estimate the contract value?
Yes. Article 35 of the Bidding Law
a. How is the contract value estimated for the case like the one described in Section 1:
It is determined based on the total invested capital or estimated budget (if any) for project. All expenses are included, including reserve expenses, charges, fees and taxes.
b. Who prepares these estimates?
The procuring entity or the investor of the project
c. Is the estimated contract value published in the tender notice / tender documents?
Yes. Article 35 of the Bidding Law
9. Is the procuring entity required to have already allocated budget to a specific project before tendering?
Yes. Article 35 of the Bidding Law
Phase 2: from Advertisement to Bid Submission
The following questions relate to the initial phase of the procurement process, focusing on how the procurement method is chosen, how the tender is published, and how bids are collected from the private sector. For the definition of “procuring entity”, please refer to Section 1.
Procurement Method
10. According to the legal framework, would open tendering (i.e., the process in which any business can submit a bid) be the default method of procurement in Vietnam for a contract like the one described in Section 1?
No, Section 1, Chapter 2 of the Bidding Law
11. In practice, what is the most common method of procurement for a contract like the one described in Section 1?
Open tendering is not the default, but remains the most common for a case comparable to the case study.
12. Does the legal framework define the situations in which open tendering must be used (including thresholds)? If the legal framework regulates exceptions to open tendering, please list them.
Yes. Article 20 of the Bidding Law. Exceptions to open tendering are cases under restrictive tendering, direct award, competitive dialogue, direct procurement, self implementation, community’s and participation selection of bidders in some special cases (Articles 21¬27 of the Bidding Law)
13. Does the legal framework prohibit dividing contracts to circumvent thresholds for open tendering?
Yes. Article 89.6 (k) of the Bidding Law
a. In practice, how often does this happen?
Very rarely (< 10% of cases)
14. What are the commonly used strategies to circumvent the rules and thresholds on open procurement?
The procuring entity sets out very high technical specifications
15. Which of the following materials need to be made publicly available by the procuring entity?
By law and Publicly available in practice
Procurement plans: Article 8.1 of the Bidding Law
Tender notices: Article 8.1 of the Bidding Law
Tender documents and technical specifications: Article 8.1 of the Bidding Law
Notices of award / bidding results: Article 8.1 of the Bidding Law
16. Where are the above materials published?
Internet – Link: http://muasamcong.mpi.gov.vn/
Newspapers
Other: websites of ministries, local sectors, provinces or other public mass media
Tender Notices & Tender Documents
17. According to the legal framework, is there a minimum time limit between the advertisement of the tender notice and the submission deadline for an open tendering procedure like the one described in Section 1?
Yes. Article 12.1 of the Bidding Law
a. In practice, how many days would pass between the advertisement of the tender notice and the submission deadline for a case like the one described in Section 1?
30 -40 days
18. Does the legal framework establish the minimum content of the tender notice and tender documents? If "Yes", please list the requirements.
Yes. Articles 218- 219 of the Commercial Law. The tender notice must include: a/ Name and address of the procuring entity; b/ Brief description of bidding contents; c/ Time limit, place and procedures for receipt of bid documents; d/ Time limit, place and procedures for submission of bid documents; e/ Guidance on seeking clarification of the tender documents.
Tender documents must include: a/ Tender notice; b/ Requirements on procuring goods or services; c/ Methods of evaluation, comparison, ranking and selection of bidders; d/ Other instructions related to bidding.
a. In practice, which of the following are NOT usually included in the tender notice and/or tender documents?
– Grounds for exclusion of bidders
– Main terms and conditions of the contract
– Payment schedule under the procurement contract
Subcontracting
19. Does the legal framework regulate subcontracting?
Yes. Article 128.2 of Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP
20. According to the legal framework, is the procuring entity allowed to establish that a share of the contract must be performed by the original contractor and cannot be subcontracted? For example, 25% of the contract must be performed by the company that is awarded the bid.
Yes. There is no requirement on a specific share.
21. According to the legal framework, are bidders required to disclose their intent to subcontract portions of the contract when submitting their bid?
Yes. Article 4.36 of the Bidding Law, Article 128.2 (b) of Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP
22. If the intent to subcontract was not disclosed in the bid, what is the contractor who decides to subcontract after the contract is signed required to do?
None of the above
23. Can the subcontractor be held liable by the procuring entity for low work quality? If the subcontractor can only be held liable in certain circumstances, please list them.
No. Article 128.2(a) of Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP
Clarifications
24. When a potential bidder seeks clarifications on the tender documents from the procuring entity, what is the most common way of addressing them?
The procuring entity addresses all clarifications in a public meeting
The procuring entity will answer, and it is always required to communicate the answer to all other bidders too – Legal basis: Article 14.2 (c) of Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP

25. In practice, are clarifications used as an opportunity to negotiate with the procuring entity?
No.
26. Does the legal framework prohibit informal meetings between the procuring entity and a bidder during the tendering process?
No. Article 89 of the Bidding Law
a. In practice, how often do these meetings happen?
Rarely (between 10-25%)
Bid Security
27. Does the legal framework require BidCo to provide a form of bid guarantee?
Yes. Article 11.1 of the Bidding Law
28. In practice, which instrument would BidCo most commonly use as a bid guarantee?
Bid security deposit – Please specify the amount: VND 55 million – VND 170 million
29. If BidCo is required, what is the most common instrument of bid security deposit?
Cash
Bank guarantee / letter of credit
Phase 3: from Bid Opening to Contract Signing
The following questions relate to bid opening, bid evaluation, exclusions and contract signing. When answering these questions, please continue to refer to the case study assumptions outlined in Section 1. For the definition of “procuring entity", please refer to Section 1.
Time (calendar days)
30. Does the legal framework establish a timeframe for the procuring entity to proceed to bid opening once the deadline for bid submission has been reached?
Yes. Article 14.3(b) of Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP
a. In practice, does the procuring entity proceed to bid opening immediately (i.e., at the precise day and time of the deadline for bid submission)?
Yes.
b. If not immediately, how many calendar days after the deadline on average?
Time: Main reasons for delay
31. In practice, in a case comparable to the case study scenario, how many days would pass between bid opening and public notice of award (i.e., the moment in which all tenderers, participants and relevant parties are notified of the award decision), considering that no complaints/challenges/protests have been filed? In this estimate, please include the time to evaluate the bids, notify all bidders of the decision and notify the winner of the award. If there is no public notice, please indicate the time until notification of BidCo.
Time: 45 – 60 days. Main reasons for delay: The bidder selection result must be verified or there needs some amendments to the bidding dossiers/ documents.
32. Is there a standstill (or pause) period between public notice of award and contract signing to allow unsuccessful bidders to challenge the award decision?
Yes. Length: 10 days
33. In practice, in a case comparable to the case study scenario, how many days would pass on average between public notice of award and contract signing? Please include the time for the winner to submit relevant documents and the time to sign the contract.
Time: 20 – 25 days. Main reasons for delay
34. In practice, how many days would pass on average between contract signing and receipt of a notice to proceed with the works?
Time: 0 days or upon receipt of the performance security by the procuring entity.
Main reasons for delay: No receipt of the performance security
35. If works permits or other administrative authorizations are required to begin the works, how long does it take on average to obtain them once the contract has been signed? Please indicate “0 days" if the permits and authorizations are automatically granted to the contractor or not required.
Time: 0 days
Main reasons for delay
Evaluation & Award
36. Does the legal framework regulate how members of the selection committee are chosen?
Yes. Article 116, Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP
37. Are employees of the procuring entity required to follow a mandatory code of conduct or ethics that includes topics like screening procedures, conflict of interest, training requirements, etc.?
No. Not mentioned in the laws
38. According to the legal framework, what would be the award criterion considering a case like the one described in Section 1?
Price – Legal basis: Article 39.1 of the Bidding Law
Price and other qualitative elements (i.e., best value for money or the most advantageous combination of cost, time to completion, quality and sustainability, or the most economically advantageous tender) – Legal basis: Article 39.2 of the Bidding Law
Other, please explain: Combination of technical and price assessment (Article 39.3 of the Bidding Law)
39. Does the legal framework require all non-price evaluation criteria to be objective and quantifiable?
No. Not mentioned in the laws
40. In practice, in which order would the selection (technical, financial, procedural, etc.) criteria and award criteria be evaluated in a tender like the one described in Section 1?
The company's compliance with the selection criteria is checked first (perhaps even during a pre-qualification procedure) and, only if satisfactory, the tender is evaluated based on the award criteria
41. In practice, how often is the award decision based solely on price and not on best value for money?
Rarely (between 10-25%)
42. In practice, how often do the tender documents contain an evaluation criteria granting preference to companies that have already worked with the procuring entity?
Very rarely (< 10% of cases)
43. In practice, how often is a bid disqualified solely because of an error/formality (for example, a missing document, formatting of the bidding documents, etc.)?
Rarely (between 10-25%)
44. In practice, in these cases would the bidder be given the opportunity to rectify such error before disqualification?
Yes. Article 14.3 (c) of Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP
45. According to the legal framework, can the procuring entity unilaterally change some of the tendering requirements after the bid is opened, but before the contract is siqned? If "Yes", please specify under which conditions the procuring entity can do so.
No.
a. In practice, how often do such changes occur?

Very rarely (90%)
Exclusion
47. When a bidder is unsuccessful (either because of exclusion or loss), is it provided with an explanation of the reasons for the exclusion/loss in writing?
Yes, by law the bidder must always be provided with an explanation in writing – Legal basis and timeframe: Article 20.6 (b) of Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP; within 5 workings days from the time the bidding result is approved.
a. If “Yes”, is the bidder usually told early enough so that it can challenge the exclusion/loss in a timely manner?
Yes
Phase 4: Contract Management
The following questions relate to performance guarantee, contract renegotiation, underperformance and termination. When answering these auestions, please continue to refer to the case study assumptions outlined in Section 1. For the definition of “procuring entity”, please refer to Section 1.
Performance Guarantee
48. According to the legal framework, is BidCo required to provide a performance guarantee deposit that ensures a source of compensation in case of failure to perform its contractual obligations?
Yes. Amount: 2%- 10% of the bid winning price.
Articles 66 & 72 of the Bidding Law.
49. If BidCo is required, what is the most common instrument of performance guarantee?
Certificate of deposit
Bank Guarantee / Letter of Credit
Payment retention until satisfactory completion of the contract
50. In practice, how long does it usually take for the procuring entity to return the performance guarantee in full once the certificate of completion of works is issued?
5-10 days
Contract Renegotiations / Amendments
51. Does the legal framework regulate contract renegotiation? If “Yes”, please indicate the relevant provisions.
Yes. Article 67 of the Bidding Law and Article 93 of Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP
a. If “Yes”, what are the limits to renegotiate each of the aspects below without the need to re-tender?
– Price (for example because of initial underestimation of cost or poor project design): The price is only adjusted in case of contract based on fixed unit price, contract based on modifiable unit price and time-based contract.
– Scope (length, size, etc.): Size of the contract cannot be changed if the increase amount of work is due to the contractor’s subjective fault. Delivery timeline will only be adjusted in case of force majeure, change in scope of work, design, implementation method due to objective reasons, and hand over of ground.
– Technical specifications (materials, etc.): Change of subcontractor (if the subcontractor is not listed in the bididng documents) must be subject to the investor’s approval.
– Delivery timeline
– Contractor/subcontractor
52. How often would a contract like the one described in Section 1 be renegotiated?
Occasionally (between 25-50%)
53. If the contract described in Section 1 were more complex (i.e., lengthier and/or more costly execution, more complex scope or object, etc.), how often would it be renegotiated?
Often (between 50-90%)
54. How often do bidders submit unrealistically low bids to win the contract confident of having a possibility to renegotiate at a later stage?
Rarely (between 10-25%)
55. How often are “emergencies” used as an excuse to renegotiate?
Rarely (between 10-25%)
56. According to the legal framework, is there a percentage of price increase below which the procuring entity is not required to provide a reason for the renegotiation? If “Yes”, please provide the percentage and the relevant legal basis.
No.
57. According to the legal framework, is there a percentage of price increase above which the procuring entity is not allowed to renegotiate and is always required to re-tender? If”Yes”, please provide the percentage and the relevant legal basis.
No.
58. If limits on price renegotiation exist, do they apply to each renegotiation or to all renegotiations combined (for example, if the legal framework imposes that any increase in price shall not exceed 50%, will this limit apply to each modification if several successive modifications occur)?
All renegotiations. Article 67.4 of the Bidding Law
59. Are the results of contract renegotiations made publicly available?
No. Not addressed by law but practically No
60. In practice, what are the commonly used strategies to circumvent the renegotiation rules in the context of re-tendering?
61. Does the legal framework regulate unilateral termination of the contract by the procuring entity (i.e., the termination at will by the procuring entity, including for no reason)? If “Yes”, please indicate the relevant provisions.
Yes. Article 117.11 of Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP; Article 428 of the Civil Code of Vietnam.
a. In practice, how often would the procuring entity unilaterally terminate the contract despite the contractor properly performing its contractual duties?
Very rarely (< 10% of cases)
62. How often would the contractor bring a case (in court or through alternative dispute resolution) against the procuring entity for damages resulting from unilateral termination not due to the contractor's default?
Very rarely (< 10% of cases)
Phase 5: Payment, Delays and Quality Assessment
The following questions relate to payment and inspections. When answering these questions, please continue to refer to the case study assumptions outlined in Section 1. For the definition of “procuring entity", please refer to Section 1.
Payment
63. According to the legal framework, is there a limit to how much the procuring entity can pay upfront for the contractor to hire workers, buy materials, and start operations, in a contract like the one described in Section 1?
No.
a. In practice, how much would usually be paid upfront for a contract like the one described in Section 1?
Minimum 10% of the contract value, maximum 50% of the contract value.
64. During the execution of the contract, does the legal framework establish a timeframe within which the procuring entity must process the payment once an invoice is received?
Yes. Article 19 of Decree No. 37/2015/ND-CP
a. In practice, how many calendar days will be necessary on average for BidCo to receive payment once the invoice has been delivered to the relevant authority?
Maximum 14 days
b. In practice, how many people would need to authorize payment within the procuring entity before payment is made?

2

c. Does the procuring entity set minimum standards about the completed works that the company must meet to receive payment? If so, please specify what these standards are.
Yes. Standards: Based on the actual completed amount of work by the contractor
d. In practice, how often will BidCo receive payment within the timeframe established by the legal framework?
Often (between 50-90%)
e. If rarely, what are the main reasons for delay?
N/A
f. Are payments usually spread out equally throughout the course of the work?
No. Articles 95-98 of Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP Based on the actual completed amount of work by the contractor.
g. According to the legal framework, is the company entitled to claim interest on late payments if the procuring entity does not pay within the legally – established timeframe?
Yes. Article 94 of Decree No. 63/2014/ND-CP
h. If so, in practice how often would such interest be paid to the company?
Often (between 50-90%)
65. Assuming that BidCo delivers works complying with the quality standards agreed-upon in the contract, within budget and on time, what strategies, if any, does the procuring entity use to delay or avoid payment?
The procuring entity has certain financial difficulties
a. In practice, how often does the procuring entity not pay?
Very rarely (< 10% of cases)
b. If non-payment is common, how often would BidCo resort to informal payments to obtain payment?
Very rarely ( 90%)
68. Upon completion of the works, does the legal framework require BidCo to guarantee the works for a certain period of time?
Yes. Articles 35-36 of Decree No. 46/2015/ND-CP
69. If BidCo is required, what is the most common instrument of post-completion guarantee?
Bank guarantee / Letter of credit
Payment retention
70. In practice, how long after completion of the works is BidCo required to maintain the instrument that guarantees them?
12- 18 months
Delays & Overruns
71. In practice, how often are the works delivered within the original deadline?
Often (between 50-90%)
72. In practice, if delays are common, what are the main reasons for them?
Burdensome administrative processes within the procuring entity
Capacity of the procuring entity (staff/skills/budgetary constraints)
Capacity of the contractor (technical/financial/managerial/human capital constraints)
Poor planning on the procuring entity’s side (poorly designed project specifications, etc.)
Poor planning on the contractor’s side
73. In practice, how often are the works delivered within the original budget?
Occasionally (between 25-50%)
74. In practice, if cost overruns are common, what are the main reasons for them?
Market conditions (changes in input prices, fluctuations in exchange rate, etc.)
Burdensome administrative processes within the procuring entity
Capacity of the contractor (technical/financial/managerial/human capital constraints)
Poor planning on the procuring entity’s side (poorly designed project specifications, etc.)
Poor planning on the contractor’s side
Research – Criticalities of the Procurement Process
75. How often are the following strategies used by the procuring entity to circumvent public procurement rules?
Not advertise procurement opportunities long enough to minimize competition: 10-25%
Prioritize projects without sufficient motivation just to benefit a particular bidder. : 10-25%
Prioritize non-competitive tenders to restrict market entry. : 10-25%
Define technical specifications to benefit a specific bidder. : 10-25%
Irregularities during the bidding process. : 10-25%
Biased interpretation of the selection criteria.: 25-50%
Add specific obligations in the contract that were not previously incorporated in the tender documents, and by doing so impose unnecessary burdens on the contractor.:<10% of cases
Delay payments to the contractor to request other works not included in the tender documents. .:<10% of cases
Delay the certification of completion of the contract to obtain other works/goods/services not previously included in the tender documents. .:<10% of cases
Unilaterally and arbitrarily terminate the contract. .:<10% of cases
76/ How often are the following strategies used by private sector companies to circumvent public procurement rules?
Collusion between bidders (cover bidding, bid suppression, bid rotation, market allocation). .:<10% of cases
Collusion with the procuring entity, to negate market entry to other competitors: 10-25%
Submission of recklessly low bids to win the tender. 10-25%
Falsification of documents or failure to disclose essential information in the bidder's offer. 10-25%
Informally paying public officials: 50-90%
Abuse the renegotiation process to increase the price or the scope of the project without another competitive process. .: 50-90%
Delay the execution of the contract to coerce the procuring entity to award other contracts to the same company. 10-25%
Execute the contract with less quality or with different technical specifications than were submitted during the tender process. .: 50-90%

Employ subcontractors that were neither properly selected nor disclosed during the tender process. 10-25%

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If you have any question on the above, please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com . Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you very much!

Lawyer in Vietnam Dr. Oliver Massmann – Solar Power Development in Vietnam – what you must know:

 

  1. What can you tell me about the policies Vietnam now has in place to support solar development?

The legal framework is almost complete. I expect the solar PPA template will be issued within this year so that the investors have full guidance to develop projects in Vietnam. However, as I see from the recent draft solar PPA, it repeats the same mistakes in other renewable PPAs that make projects not bankable. This issue needs to be sorted out soon so that solar development will be on fast track in near future.

  1. Total PV installations in Vietnam are still quite low — what has been holding back development?

Because the latest Prime Minister’s Decision promulgating solar FIT was only issued on 11 April 2017. In addition, solar energy is still expensive and less stable throughout the year compared with other sources of energy. Bankability of the PPA is also a worth-noting issue.

Bankability of PPAs has been achieved for other power projects in the past in Vietnam. We are now working on solutions for the solar power sector. It can be done.

  1. How do you see the solar market evolving through the end of this decade, both in terms of manufacturing and project development?

I foresee a rapid development in the sector. This is due to the Government’s change of focus on clean energy and environment protection policies. I can see many foreign investors visiting Vietnam recently to look for investment opportunities and many of them have managed to reach a deal with local partners.

  1. Where are the opportunities in Vietnamese PV and how should prospective investors and developers approach the market?

Vietnam is an untapped market for solar. The Government offers many good incentives to attract foreign investment, for example, exemption of land rental within 3 years from the operation date, CIT 10%, etc. Investors and developers should first establish close contact with local authorities and conduct careful due diligence on local partners. BOT is the most recommended investment form. In addition, investors and developers may consider taking part in different segments such as equipment supply, solar panels manufacturing, or assembling, etc.

  1. What can you tell me about the availability of financing?

IFC and ADB are the most active financiers. Local banks are also more and more interested in lending to renewable projects in general and solar projects in particular. However, due to poor performance and credit of EVN, the financing resources are still limited. We recommend MIGA (Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency) support for on-grid utility scale solar power projects (above 50 MW).

***

If you have any question on the above, please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com, Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you very much!

 

 

 

Lawyer in Vietnam Dr. Oliver Massmann PUBLIC MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

FDI capital has been rising in the past few years. In the first 6 months of 2017, the total FDI capital to Vietnam is USD19.2 billion, an increase of 54.8% compared to the same period last year. Vietnam’s M&A market continues to be active in 2017 after reaching a record-breaking deal value of USD5.8 billion in 2016. The number of M&A deals amounts to 2,062 deals worth USD1.8 billion from January – May 2017, up 116.2% compared with the statistics last year.

Real estate continues to be the most attractive sector, with hundreds of millions of USD waiting to be poured into the market via M&A, especially in residential, offices, retail, hotel and industrial park segments. Main investors still come from Japan, Korea, Singapore, and particularly a rising number of investors from China recently. The retail, consumer goods, and industrial goods are also very active, with M&A deals accounting for 53% of total deals in 2016. This is partly due to an attractive market of about 93 million people with high purchasing power.

Notable deals in 2016 and first half of 2017 include the following:

  • Central Group (Thai Group) bought BigC Vietnam at USD1.1 billion
  • TTC Holdings (Thailand) bought Metro Vietnam at USD710 million
  • In March 2017, Siam City Centre bought 65% of Holcim Vietnam from LafargeHolcim at USD524 million
  • In April 2016, Mirae Asset (a Korean securities company) together with AON BGN Investment Company (an UK company) bought Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower at USD350 million
  • In December 2016, Fraser & Neave ( a Singaporean beverage company) bought 5.4% of Vinamilk’s shares at USD500 million

Note: Owner of Fraser & Neave is also owner of TTC Holdings

  • In January 2016, Mobifone bought 95% of AVG’s shares at USD400 million

Leading companies in the sectors are main target of foreign investors. They have the advantage of holding strong brands, strong market share or controlling significant natural resources.

We hope that the M&A will continue its trend when the Government speeds up the equitization of many state-owned enterprises, especially in power, infrastructure and telecommunication sectors. Experts forecast the total value of M&A deals in 2017 will reach up to USD6.2 -6.5 billion.

How to obtain control of a public company

The most common means of obtaining control over a public company are as follows:

  • The acquisition of shares/charter capital through:
  • buying shares/charter capital from the existing shareholders of the company;
  • buying shares/charter capital of a listed company on the stock exchange; and
  • public share purchase offer.
  • Through a merger. The 2014 Law on Enterprises sets out the procedures for company mergers by way of a transfer of all lawful assets, rights, obligations and interests to the merged company, and for the simultaneous termination of the merging companies.
  • Through the acquisition of assets.

There are restrictions on the purchase of shares/charter capital of local companies by foreign investors in certain sensitive sectors. In addition, the law is silent on merger or assets acquisition (e.g., business spin-off) transactions where a foreign investor is a party. Regarding other assets acquisition transactions, if the asset is a real property, foreign ownership right will be restricted according to real estate laws.

Securities of public companies must be registered and deposited at the Vietnam Securities Depository Centre before being traded.

Depending on the numbers of shares purchased, an investor can become a controlling shareholder. Under the Vietnam Law on Securities, a shareholder that directly or indirectly owns 5% or more of the voting shares of an issuing organization is a major shareholder. Any transactions that result in more than 10% ownership of the paid-up charter capital of the securities company must seek approval of the State Securities Commission (SSC).

What a bidder generally questions before making a bid

Before officially contacting the potential target, the bidder conducts a preliminary assessment based on publicly available information. The bidder then contacts the target, expresses its intention of buying shares/subscribing for its shares and the parties sign a confidentiality agreement before the due diligence process. The confidentiality agreement basically includes confidentiality obligations in performing the transaction. The enforcement of confidentiality agreements by courts in Vietnam remains untested.

A bidder’s legal due diligence usually covers the following matters:

  • Corporate details of the target and its subsidiaries, affiliates and other companies that form part of the target.
  • Contingent liabilities (from past or pending litigation).
  • Employment matters.
  • Contractual agreements of the target.
  • Statutory approvals and permits regarding the business activities of the target.
  • Insurance, tax, intellectual property, debts, and land-related issues.
  • Anti-trust, corruption and other regulatory issues.

Restrictions on shares transfer of key shareholders

Founding shareholders can only transfer their shares to other founding shareholders of the company within three years from the issuance of the Enterprise Registration Certificate. After then, the shares can be transferred freely. An internal approval of the general meeting of shareholders is always required if:

  • The company increases its capital by issuing new shares.
  • There is any share transfer of the founding shareholders within the above three-year period.

If the sale and purchase is a direct agreement between the company and the seller in relation to an issuance of shares, the selling price must be lower than the market price at the time of selling, or in the absence of a market price, the book value of the shares at the time of the approval plan to sell the shares. In addition, the selling price to foreign and domestic buyers must be the same.

When a tender offer is required

A tender offer is required in the following cases:

  • Purchase of a company’s circulating shares that results in a purchaser, with no shareholding or less than a 25% shareholding, acquiring a 25% shareholding or more.
  • Purchase of a company’s circulating shares that results in a purchaser (and affiliated persons of the purchaser), with a 25% or more shareholding, acquiring a further 10% or more of circulating shares of the company.
  • Purchase of a company’s circulating shares that results in a purchaser (and affiliated persons of the purchaser), with a 25% shareholding or more, acquiring a further 5% up to 10% of currently circulating shares of the company within less than one year from the date of completion of a previous offer.

There is no guidance on building a stake by using derivatives. In addition, the bidder cannot purchase shares or share purchase rights outside the offer process during the tender offer period.

The bidder must publicly announce the tender offer in three consecutive editions of one electronic newspaper or one written newspaper and (for a listed company only) on the relevant stock exchange within seven days from the receipt of the State Securities Commission’s (SSC’s) opinion regarding the registration of the tender offer. The tender offer can only be implemented after the SSC has provided its opinion, and following the public announcement by the bidder.

Making the bid public

The offer timetable is as follows:

  • The bidder prepares registration documents for its public bid to purchase shares.
  • The bidder sends the bid registration documents to the SSC for approval and, at the same time, sends the registration documents to the target.
  • The SSC reviews the tender documents within seven days.
  • The board of the target must send its opinions regarding the offer to the SSC and the shareholders of the target within 14 days from receipt of the tender documents.
  • The bid is announced in the mass media (although this is not a legal requirement).
  • The length of the offer period is between 30 and 60 days.
  • The bidder reports the results of the tender to the SSC within 10 days of completion.

Companies operating in specific sectors (such as banking, insurance, and so on) can be subject to a different timetable.

Offer conditions

A takeover offer usually contains the following conditions:

  • The terms and conditions of the offer apply equally to all shareholders of the target.
  • The relevant parties are allowed full access to the tender information.
  • The shareholders have full rights to sell the shares.
  • Applicable laws are fully respected.

An offer can also be subject to conditions precedent. Conditions precedent are set out in the share sale and purchase agreement or the capital contribution transfer agreement. There is no specific restriction on conditions precedent other than the requirement that they cannot be contrary to law and conflict with social ethics (although the legal definition of social ethics is unclear). The most common conditions precedent are:

  • Amendments to the charter/relevant licence of the target.
  • Obtaining necessary approvals to conduct the transaction.
  • Changes to the target’s management body.

Payment of the contract price will only be made after the conditions precedent are met.

Employee consultation

There is no requirement under Vietnamese law that the employees must be consulted about the offer. However, if a layoff is to be conducted, the employer must:

  • Prepare a labour usage plan.
  • Consult with the employee representative.
  • Notify the competent labour authority on the implementation of the labour usage plan.

When a tender offer is required?

A tender offer is required in the following cases:

  • Purchase of a company’s circulating shares that results in a purchaser, with no shareholding, or less than a 25% shareholding, acquiring a 25% shareholding.
  • Purchase of a company’s circulating shares that results in a purchaser (and affiliated persons of the purchaser), with a 25% or more shareholding, acquiring a further 10% or more of circulating shares of the company.
  • Purchase of a company’s circulating shares that results in a purchaser (and affiliated persons of the purchaser), with a 25% shareholding or more, acquiring a further 5% up to 10% of currently circulating shares of the company within less than one year from the date of completion of the previous offer.

Form of consideration and minimum level of consideration

Under Vietnamese law, shares can be purchased by offering cash, gold, land use rights, intellectual property rights, technology, technical know-how or other assets. In practice, acquisitions are most commonly made for cash consideration.

In cases of full acquisition of state-owned enterprises, the first payment for the share purchase must not be less than 70% of the value of such shares, with the remaining amount being paid within 12 months.

In transactions involving auctions of shares by state-owned enterprises, the purchaser must make a deposit of 10% of the value of the shares registered for subscription based on the reserve price at least five working days before the auction date included in the target company’s rule. Additionally, the purchaser must transfer the entire consideration for the shares into the bank account of the body conducting the auction within ten working days of the announcement of the auction results.

In the case of a public tender offer, the payment and transfer of shares via a securities agent company appointed to act as an agent for the public tender offer must comply with Decree 58/2012/ND-CP.

Delisting a company

If a company seeks voluntarily de-listing, it must submit an application for de-listing that includes the following documents:

  • A request for de-listing.
  • For a joint stock company:
    • the shareholders’ general meeting approval of de-listing of the stock;
    • the board of directors’ approval of de-listing of bonds; and
    • the shareholders’ general meeting approval of de-listing of convertible bonds.
  • The members’ council (for a multi-member limited liability company) or the company’s owner (for a single member limited liability company) approval of de-listing of bonds.
  • For a securities investment fund, the investors’ congress approval of de-listing of the fund’s certificate.
  • For a public securities investment company, the shareholders’ general meeting approval of stock de-listing.

A listed company can only de-list its securities if de-listing is approved by a decision of the general meeting of shareholders passed by more than 50% of the voting shareholders who are not major shareholders.

If a company voluntarily de-lists from the Hanoi Stock Exchange or Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange, the application for de-listing must also include a plan to deal with the interests of shareholders and investors. The Hanoi Stock Exchange or Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange must consider the request for de-listing within ten and 15 days from the receipt of a valid application, respectively.

Transfer duties payable on the sale of shares in a company

Depending on whether the seller is an individual or a corporate entity, the following taxes will apply:

  • Capital gains tax. Capital gains tax is a form of income tax that is payable on any premium on the original investor’s actual contribution to capital or its costs to purchase such capital. Foreign companies and local corporate entities are subject to a corporate income tax of 20%. However, if the assets transferred are securities, a foreign corporate seller is subject to corporate income tax of 0.1% on the gross transfer price.
  • Personal income tax. If the seller is an individual resident, personal income tax will be imposed at the rate of 20% of the gains made, and 0.1% on the sales price if the transferred assets are securities. An individual tax resident is defined as a person who:
    • stays in Vietnam for 183 days or longer within a calendar year;
    • stays in Vietnam for a period of 12 consecutive months from his arrival in Vietnam;
    • has a registered permanent residence in Vietnam; or
    • rents a house in Vietnam under a lease contract of a term of at least 90 days in a tax year.

If the seller is an individual non-resident, he is subject to personal income tax at 0.1% on the gross transfer price, regardless of whether there is any capital gain.

Payment of the above transfer taxes is mandatory in Vietnam.

Regulatory approvals

The investor will need to register the capital contribution and purchase of shares if either:

  • The target is operating in one of the 267 conditional sectors referred to in the 2015 Investment Law.
  • The capital contribution and purchase of shares results in foreign investors owning 51% or more of the target’s charter capital (in particular, from below 51% to more than 51% and from 51% to above 51%).

The local Department of Planning and Investment where the target is located must issue its final approval within 15 days from the receipt of a valid registration application. However, in practice, this procedure can take several months due to the workload of certain central authorities and the lack of clear guidance documents. Therefore, the registration requirement can cause substantial delays to the whole M&A process.

In other cases, the target company only needs to register change of membership / shareholders at the Business Registration Division.

Restrictions on repatriation of profits and/ or foreign exchange rules for foreign companies

If the target company in Vietnam already has an investment registration certificate, it must open a direct investment capital account at a licensed bank in Vietnam. Payment for a share purchase by a foreign investor must be conducted through this account. The account can be denominated in Vietnamese dong or a foreign currency. In addition, if the foreign investor is an offshore investor, it will also need to open a capital account at a commercial bank operating in Vietnam to carry out the payment on the seller’s account and receive profits.

If the target company in Vietnam does not have an investment registration certificate, the foreign investor will need to open an indirect investment capital account for payment to the seller and remittance of profits.

***

Please do contact the author Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions on the above. Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

 

 

 

Vietnam – Wind Power Breaking News – One of the first foreign financed Wind PPAs signed – Duane Morris advised on this transaction – What you must know

 

EAB New Energy GmbH (“EAB”), a German privately held SME with business activities around the world (Asia, Latin America, South Africa), engaged Duane Morris Vietnam LLC to advise on one of the very first privately financed Wind Energy Power Purchase Agreements for a wind power project in Vietnam – the “Mui Dinh” wind project (SPV el-wind Mui Dinh LLC) with a total investment value at final stage of about 60 Million USD.

EAB, in close co-operation with its subsidiary in Vietnam – WPV Wind Power Vietnam LLC, has received the Construction Permit for the wind power plant in Ninh Thuan province and will start the wind farm construction works in due course. Duane Morris Vietnam LLC advised EAB in the negotiation of the Wind Power Purchase Agreement with the Electricity of Vietnam (“EVN”) to connect into to the national electricity and sell electricity to EVN (the “Project”). The Wind Power Purchase Agreement was signed on 01 February 2016. This is one of the first signed Wind Power PPA in Vietnam and EAB is one of the first foreign companies with this success.

Given the fact that Vietnam’s wind energy potential is highly appreciated by investors in comparison to its ASEAN neighbours, and very good for building large wind power plants, the success of this Project is considered to pave the way for development of another 40 wind power development in Vietnam, roughly 513,360 megawatts.

This is the beginning of a sizeable privately financed wind energy sector in Vietnam.

Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you want to know more details on the above or need our assistance in your project. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

 

 

Lawyer in Vietnam Oliver Massmann SOLAR ROOFTOP PROJECT KEY DRIVERS

1. What are the key factors that are driving and restraining the ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER projects market in Vietnam?
In our view, following factors influence investors’ decision in investing in Rooftop Solar Power (RSP) projects in Vietnam:
• Low FIT: the proposed draft law suggests that ‘when electricity generated is higher than electricity consumed, the difference shall be purchased by the purchaser at the connection point, with the electricity tariff is 3150 VND/kWh (excluding value added tax, equivalent of 15 USDcents/kWh). Electricity tariff shall be adjusted according to the fluctuations of the exchange rate between VND/USD’.
• Lack of information on solar power: As a RSP project investment costs are relatively high, investors seek necessary information to support their investment decision. Nevertheless, there is no complete survey or complete source of information on solar energy that investors may access.
• Legal framework: The legal framework for solar power plants are under development. The MOIT is now working on a new draft decree to deal with difficulties that investors may face including application for tax incentives, import of equipment, convenient funding plans, etc.
• Other considerations such as investment costs, technology, etc.

2. Questions regarding cumulative installed capacity:
i. As of December 2013, the cumulative installed capacity for solar PV was 4 MW. What is your estimate of cumulative installed capacity till end of 2015?
The Vietnamese solar PV market is still very small with only around 4.5 MWp installed capacity at the end of 2014. Vietnam is expected to increase to around 7 MWp until 2020 and 1,500 MWp until 2030 with a respective share in renewable power generation capacity of 1.2% (by 2020) and 12.8% (by 2030). I do not have the exact number of cumulative installed capacity in 2015 but I estimate that it should have reached 5MWp.
ii. In your opinion, rooftop solar power installation accounted for how many percent of total solar PV installations? ( 2%?, 5%?)
We do not have access to any official source of latest information on specific numbers of RSP installations and total solar PV installations. Nevertheless, as noted in our answer to your Question 3 above, Vietnam has roughly 15,000 small scale PV off-grid applications, by the end of 2014. Based on such records, the rough percentage of installations of rooftop solar power installations would be 40% of the total solar PV installations (i.e. 6,000 RSP installations for solar home systems and small size PV systems for public use vs. 9,000 ground mounted PV installations for BTS, telecommunication use, public lightening systems and solar signal lights).
iii. What is the expected growth rate from 2016-2020? Is the growth rate of the industry moving in the right direction to achieve the proposed target? (if any?)
It is expected to achieve around 7 MWp until 2020 (growth rate 40% compared to 2016). Yes, the growth rate is moving in the right direction.

3. We are trying to identify the key end-users for ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER systems. What is the percentage (approx.) installed capacity among each of them: Residential, Commercial (Buildings) and Others (Car parking facilities, etc.
We do not have specific figures of RSP system’s installed capacity but according to a recent report of solar power in general, by the end of 2014, roughly 15,000 small scale PV off-grid applications with a total capacity of 3,600 kWp, the vast majority being <200 Wp of size only a few with more than 1kWp, were installed in Viet Nam. Of those, around 5,000 are solar home systems (SHS) with a size of 20-200Wp, 2,100 are telecommunication and BTS systems (300-4,000 Wp) and more than 1,000 are small size PV systems for public use such as in community centers, schools or medical centers (up to 3,000 Wp), which are deployed in rural and mountainous areas or on islands. Furthermore, around 5,000 solar signal lights (20-100 Wp) and 2,000 public lighting systems (50-250 Wp) were installed alongside streets and highways throughout the country.

4. Questions regarding cost:
i. What is the installation cost involved per kWp among different end-user segments in your country? (Residential, Commercial, Community) How is it likely to change in the future?
Residential/Community: $2,500 to 3,000 per kWp
Commercial: $4,500 per kWp
The installation costs can be reduced in future thank to increasing use of locally made products in solar power system and commitments to support including investment costs of the Government of Vietnam.
ii. What is the percentage break-up of installation costs among the various components in a ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER system? (Module, Charge controller, battery, inverter etc.)
Let take an example of a PV at the capacity of 1KWp/2KVA, the percentage of components costs exclusive of costs paid to installation of works by workers will be as follows:
Components Unit Price (USD)
Solar Panel 12 1,636
Battery 6 819
Inverter 1 410
Controller 2 367
3,232

5. What kind of solar panels are largely in demand for ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER systems (Monocrystalline/polycrystalline panels, thin film technologies)? Why? What is the average price range ($/Watt p) for these solar panels in Vietnam?
Monocrystalline/polycrystalline panels are popular in Vietnam as off-grid installed capacity in Viet Nam is dominated by smaller applications such as Solar Home Systems (SHS). Depending the quality and the brand name, the price is different. The average price is 3-5USD/Watt p.

6. How do you hear about new projects and could you please provide me with more examples of key recent projects? How these projects are funded? (banks, financial institutions, government, self-funded)
Basic information of big projects is usually published on the internet. Recently, Vietnam is going to build the first solar power project in Quang Nam with the installed capacity of 120 MW per year, invested by a domestic company Indochina Energy Industry Company Limited.

7. How many system integrators or installers are involved in installing ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER systems? Are there more local players or MNCs? What is the role of system integrator in such contracts? Who are the top 5 system integrators in Vietnam?
We assume that not more than 20 companies, most of them are local and produces components in solar cells/panels and related electronic devices (e.g. – controllers), act as integrators and/or installers. Major players including Hung Gia (Installation), Vtechco (Installation), Vu Phong (Installation), Nam Thai Ha JSC (Solar Materials Incorporated), Red Sun Solar (Solar Cells), Viet Linh AST (solar system), NICS Integration System (Installation).
We do not have specific market shares figures of biggest players in the market but are able to involve a professional market research company to do this job on your behalf.

8. Who are the top 5 competitors/ which brands of solar modules are highly popular in the ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER market?
The rooftop solar power market in Vietnam is still developing and there are not so many competitors yet. The popular names of Rooftop Solar Power Market are Red sun solar, Viet Vmicro JS, Panasonic, Megasun, IREX.

***
Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

THANK YOU !

Lawyer in Vietnam Oliver Massmann Latest Draft Decree on Casino Business allows Vietnamese citizens to gamble in Vietnam

According to public media, a new version of the draft decree on casino (the Casino Draft) has been internally circulated to interested parties including senior experts/consultants and other State bodies of Vietnam. While full text of the draft is not made public, local newspapers give us some hints about how the Casino Draft would be shaped. For example, it is more likely that Vietnamese citizens of 21 years old or more who are able to show evidence on their ‘financial capacity’ and afford the entrance fee may gamble at casinos. Detailed conditions are still on their way.
One more notable change is that registered total investment capital would be reduced from $4 billion to $2 billion. Please be noted that the above threshold include both borrowings and equity though it is still unclear about the minimum equity that the investor must contribute.
For now, Vietnam has 04 areas which are planned to aim at entertainment complexes that have casinos inside, which are Van Don (Quang Ninh Province), Hoi An (Quang Nam Province), Ho Tram (Vung Tau Province) and Phu Quoc (Kien Giang Province). So far, only Ho Tram Project came into operations while other are still in the process of infrastructure development. However we understand that the above list is not closed. This means that investors may actively propose new areas for the Government’s consideration.
It is expected that the Casino Draft will be officially issued in March 2016 following the Communist Party’s Congress.

***
Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Vietnamese Clean Development Mechanism CDM market – The perspective of an emission certificate buyer

Overview of the CDM market in Vietnam

Certain projects for the reduction of emissions in Vietnam are suitable for purchasing certified emission reductions (CERs) under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The buyers sign an agreement with local project owners in order to obtain rights to CERs from the project. Purchasers are usually ultimate consumers and speculators. Most CERs are eventually used by power companies and other purchasers from the EU area that meet the requirements as well as governments of developing countries etc. The buyers of primary CERs obtain at the European Climate Exchanges a discount compared to the secondary market price because they carry considerable delivery risks and typically have met CDM related expenses. Delivery risks arise typically through project execution, but also in form of CDM registration- and validation-related risks. Validation-related risks are highlighted due to the fact that out of 85 projects which have been uploaded for evaluation in Vietnam only 8 have been registered yet. Over 40% of the projects have been under validation for a year.

Vietnam’s market potential

Vietnam could have the potential to generate up to 10 million CERs. However, it is subject to acceleration of the validation process, i.e. the publication of standard CEF for the Vietnamese grid, the encouragement of required local approvals etc. Due to delays in project validation and construction, the scope will be probably smaller. The global recession has adversely affected the access to financing, which in turn affected particularly the hydropower sector (the main CDM project type in Vietnam).

Due to uncertainties with regard to the system after 2012, projects have to be registered or ordered as quickly as possible. Although the market price of CERs has decreased due to the impact of global recession, there is still a sufficient demand for Vietnam’s CERs. Purchasers are prepared to change to new product fields and are particularly interested in projects with a high sustainable development value for the local community.

CER portfolio management

Compliance buyers have to administer their portfolio intensively in order to reflect their intended and actually provided loans. Higher prices are paid usually in connection with project types involving high registration and verification risks. Furthermore, higher costs could be incurred within projects which are well advanced in respect of construction, but it will be dependent on this and not on increased registration risks. In case of projects which have already been started, the earlier CDM consideration as part of an additionality analysis has to be proven. Distribution of risk is an important risk management instrument. For example, many buyers may have a big percentage of their portfolio in Chinese CERs, so it is recommendable to have a look at other markets, such as SE Asia etc. Distribution of risk extends right up to technology type.

Most important project types in Vietnam

– hydropower: most common project in Vietnam. Validation risks are named as medium and verification risks are low. Although in these projects are a long construction period and often numerous delays.
– wastewater used for generate energy: 7 projects are already applied for registration. Risk of validation is low to medium, construction time is low (often less than one year) and the risks of validation is medium size.
– other renewable energy types: wind is a high potential, so far only one project existing. Also bio energy project have a high potential. Risks of validation and verification are low to medium, even there is a long construction period.
– MSW-treatment- are only few projects so far, but there is a high potential for composting. Risks of validation are low to medium, medium risks of verification and medium period of construction.

Most important feasible project types in Vietnam

Case studies:

BinhThuan: 30 MW wind farm project

This project, construction of the first wind farm in Vietnam, is run by the Vietnam Renewable Energy JSC. The first turbine group has been already installed on the construction site. In April 2009, the project has been registered with the CDM EB. A production of electricity of 91.571 MWh/year is expected, whereas over 59,000 t of CO2 emissions/year are to be reduced.

Case study – Cu Chi 1000t/d MSW processing plant
This project was developed by Tam SinhNghia (TSN) and includes composting of 1000 t/d of municipal solid waste (MSW). The expected emissions reduction of CH4 avoidance is estimated at roughly 1 million tCO2e (more than seven years of credited period).

Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

INTERESTED IN DOING BUSINESS IN VIETNAM? VISIT: www.vietnamlaws.xyz

THANK YOU VERY MUCH!