Tag Archives: project

Lawyer in Vietnam Dr. Oliver Massmann – Solar Power Development in Vietnam – what you must know:

 

  1. What can you tell me about the policies Vietnam now has in place to support solar development?

The legal framework is almost complete. I expect the solar PPA template will be issued within this year so that the investors have full guidance to develop projects in Vietnam. However, as I see from the recent draft solar PPA, it repeats the same mistakes in other renewable PPAs that make projects not bankable. This issue needs to be sorted out soon so that solar development will be on fast track in near future.

  1. Total PV installations in Vietnam are still quite low — what has been holding back development?

Because the latest Prime Minister’s Decision promulgating solar FIT was only issued on 11 April 2017. In addition, solar energy is still expensive and less stable throughout the year compared with other sources of energy. Bankability of the PPA is also a worth-noting issue.

Bankability of PPAs has been achieved for other power projects in the past in Vietnam. We are now working on solutions for the solar power sector. It can be done.

  1. How do you see the solar market evolving through the end of this decade, both in terms of manufacturing and project development?

I foresee a rapid development in the sector. This is due to the Government’s change of focus on clean energy and environment protection policies. I can see many foreign investors visiting Vietnam recently to look for investment opportunities and many of them have managed to reach a deal with local partners.

  1. Where are the opportunities in Vietnamese PV and how should prospective investors and developers approach the market?

Vietnam is an untapped market for solar. The Government offers many good incentives to attract foreign investment, for example, exemption of land rental within 3 years from the operation date, CIT 10%, etc. Investors and developers should first establish close contact with local authorities and conduct careful due diligence on local partners. BOT is the most recommended investment form. In addition, investors and developers may consider taking part in different segments such as equipment supply, solar panels manufacturing, or assembling, etc.

  1. What can you tell me about the availability of financing?

IFC and ADB are the most active financiers. Local banks are also more and more interested in lending to renewable projects in general and solar projects in particular. However, due to poor performance and credit of EVN, the financing resources are still limited. We recommend MIGA (Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency) support for on-grid utility scale solar power projects (above 50 MW).

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If you have any question on the above, please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com, Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you very much!

 

 

 

Lawyer in Vietnam Dr. Oliver Massmann PUBLIC MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

FDI capital has been rising in the past few years. In the first 6 months of 2017, the total FDI capital to Vietnam is USD19.2 billion, an increase of 54.8% compared to the same period last year. Vietnam’s M&A market continues to be active in 2017 after reaching a record-breaking deal value of USD5.8 billion in 2016. The number of M&A deals amounts to 2,062 deals worth USD1.8 billion from January – May 2017, up 116.2% compared with the statistics last year.

Real estate continues to be the most attractive sector, with hundreds of millions of USD waiting to be poured into the market via M&A, especially in residential, offices, retail, hotel and industrial park segments. Main investors still come from Japan, Korea, Singapore, and particularly a rising number of investors from China recently. The retail, consumer goods, and industrial goods are also very active, with M&A deals accounting for 53% of total deals in 2016. This is partly due to an attractive market of about 93 million people with high purchasing power.

Notable deals in 2016 and first half of 2017 include the following:

  • Central Group (Thai Group) bought BigC Vietnam at USD1.1 billion
  • TTC Holdings (Thailand) bought Metro Vietnam at USD710 million
  • In March 2017, Siam City Centre bought 65% of Holcim Vietnam from LafargeHolcim at USD524 million
  • In April 2016, Mirae Asset (a Korean securities company) together with AON BGN Investment Company (an UK company) bought Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower at USD350 million
  • In December 2016, Fraser & Neave ( a Singaporean beverage company) bought 5.4% of Vinamilk’s shares at USD500 million

Note: Owner of Fraser & Neave is also owner of TTC Holdings

  • In January 2016, Mobifone bought 95% of AVG’s shares at USD400 million

Leading companies in the sectors are main target of foreign investors. They have the advantage of holding strong brands, strong market share or controlling significant natural resources.

We hope that the M&A will continue its trend when the Government speeds up the equitization of many state-owned enterprises, especially in power, infrastructure and telecommunication sectors. Experts forecast the total value of M&A deals in 2017 will reach up to USD6.2 -6.5 billion.

How to obtain control of a public company

The most common means of obtaining control over a public company are as follows:

  • The acquisition of shares/charter capital through:
  • buying shares/charter capital from the existing shareholders of the company;
  • buying shares/charter capital of a listed company on the stock exchange; and
  • public share purchase offer.
  • Through a merger. The 2014 Law on Enterprises sets out the procedures for company mergers by way of a transfer of all lawful assets, rights, obligations and interests to the merged company, and for the simultaneous termination of the merging companies.
  • Through the acquisition of assets.

There are restrictions on the purchase of shares/charter capital of local companies by foreign investors in certain sensitive sectors. In addition, the law is silent on merger or assets acquisition (e.g., business spin-off) transactions where a foreign investor is a party. Regarding other assets acquisition transactions, if the asset is a real property, foreign ownership right will be restricted according to real estate laws.

Securities of public companies must be registered and deposited at the Vietnam Securities Depository Centre before being traded.

Depending on the numbers of shares purchased, an investor can become a controlling shareholder. Under the Vietnam Law on Securities, a shareholder that directly or indirectly owns 5% or more of the voting shares of an issuing organization is a major shareholder. Any transactions that result in more than 10% ownership of the paid-up charter capital of the securities company must seek approval of the State Securities Commission (SSC).

What a bidder generally questions before making a bid

Before officially contacting the potential target, the bidder conducts a preliminary assessment based on publicly available information. The bidder then contacts the target, expresses its intention of buying shares/subscribing for its shares and the parties sign a confidentiality agreement before the due diligence process. The confidentiality agreement basically includes confidentiality obligations in performing the transaction. The enforcement of confidentiality agreements by courts in Vietnam remains untested.

A bidder’s legal due diligence usually covers the following matters:

  • Corporate details of the target and its subsidiaries, affiliates and other companies that form part of the target.
  • Contingent liabilities (from past or pending litigation).
  • Employment matters.
  • Contractual agreements of the target.
  • Statutory approvals and permits regarding the business activities of the target.
  • Insurance, tax, intellectual property, debts, and land-related issues.
  • Anti-trust, corruption and other regulatory issues.

Restrictions on shares transfer of key shareholders

Founding shareholders can only transfer their shares to other founding shareholders of the company within three years from the issuance of the Enterprise Registration Certificate. After then, the shares can be transferred freely. An internal approval of the general meeting of shareholders is always required if:

  • The company increases its capital by issuing new shares.
  • There is any share transfer of the founding shareholders within the above three-year period.

If the sale and purchase is a direct agreement between the company and the seller in relation to an issuance of shares, the selling price must be lower than the market price at the time of selling, or in the absence of a market price, the book value of the shares at the time of the approval plan to sell the shares. In addition, the selling price to foreign and domestic buyers must be the same.

When a tender offer is required

A tender offer is required in the following cases:

  • Purchase of a company’s circulating shares that results in a purchaser, with no shareholding or less than a 25% shareholding, acquiring a 25% shareholding or more.
  • Purchase of a company’s circulating shares that results in a purchaser (and affiliated persons of the purchaser), with a 25% or more shareholding, acquiring a further 10% or more of circulating shares of the company.
  • Purchase of a company’s circulating shares that results in a purchaser (and affiliated persons of the purchaser), with a 25% shareholding or more, acquiring a further 5% up to 10% of currently circulating shares of the company within less than one year from the date of completion of a previous offer.

There is no guidance on building a stake by using derivatives. In addition, the bidder cannot purchase shares or share purchase rights outside the offer process during the tender offer period.

The bidder must publicly announce the tender offer in three consecutive editions of one electronic newspaper or one written newspaper and (for a listed company only) on the relevant stock exchange within seven days from the receipt of the State Securities Commission’s (SSC’s) opinion regarding the registration of the tender offer. The tender offer can only be implemented after the SSC has provided its opinion, and following the public announcement by the bidder.

Making the bid public

The offer timetable is as follows:

  • The bidder prepares registration documents for its public bid to purchase shares.
  • The bidder sends the bid registration documents to the SSC for approval and, at the same time, sends the registration documents to the target.
  • The SSC reviews the tender documents within seven days.
  • The board of the target must send its opinions regarding the offer to the SSC and the shareholders of the target within 14 days from receipt of the tender documents.
  • The bid is announced in the mass media (although this is not a legal requirement).
  • The length of the offer period is between 30 and 60 days.
  • The bidder reports the results of the tender to the SSC within 10 days of completion.

Companies operating in specific sectors (such as banking, insurance, and so on) can be subject to a different timetable.

Offer conditions

A takeover offer usually contains the following conditions:

  • The terms and conditions of the offer apply equally to all shareholders of the target.
  • The relevant parties are allowed full access to the tender information.
  • The shareholders have full rights to sell the shares.
  • Applicable laws are fully respected.

An offer can also be subject to conditions precedent. Conditions precedent are set out in the share sale and purchase agreement or the capital contribution transfer agreement. There is no specific restriction on conditions precedent other than the requirement that they cannot be contrary to law and conflict with social ethics (although the legal definition of social ethics is unclear). The most common conditions precedent are:

  • Amendments to the charter/relevant licence of the target.
  • Obtaining necessary approvals to conduct the transaction.
  • Changes to the target’s management body.

Payment of the contract price will only be made after the conditions precedent are met.

Employee consultation

There is no requirement under Vietnamese law that the employees must be consulted about the offer. However, if a layoff is to be conducted, the employer must:

  • Prepare a labour usage plan.
  • Consult with the employee representative.
  • Notify the competent labour authority on the implementation of the labour usage plan.

When a tender offer is required?

A tender offer is required in the following cases:

  • Purchase of a company’s circulating shares that results in a purchaser, with no shareholding, or less than a 25% shareholding, acquiring a 25% shareholding.
  • Purchase of a company’s circulating shares that results in a purchaser (and affiliated persons of the purchaser), with a 25% or more shareholding, acquiring a further 10% or more of circulating shares of the company.
  • Purchase of a company’s circulating shares that results in a purchaser (and affiliated persons of the purchaser), with a 25% shareholding or more, acquiring a further 5% up to 10% of currently circulating shares of the company within less than one year from the date of completion of the previous offer.

Form of consideration and minimum level of consideration

Under Vietnamese law, shares can be purchased by offering cash, gold, land use rights, intellectual property rights, technology, technical know-how or other assets. In practice, acquisitions are most commonly made for cash consideration.

In cases of full acquisition of state-owned enterprises, the first payment for the share purchase must not be less than 70% of the value of such shares, with the remaining amount being paid within 12 months.

In transactions involving auctions of shares by state-owned enterprises, the purchaser must make a deposit of 10% of the value of the shares registered for subscription based on the reserve price at least five working days before the auction date included in the target company’s rule. Additionally, the purchaser must transfer the entire consideration for the shares into the bank account of the body conducting the auction within ten working days of the announcement of the auction results.

In the case of a public tender offer, the payment and transfer of shares via a securities agent company appointed to act as an agent for the public tender offer must comply with Decree 58/2012/ND-CP.

Delisting a company

If a company seeks voluntarily de-listing, it must submit an application for de-listing that includes the following documents:

  • A request for de-listing.
  • For a joint stock company:
    • the shareholders’ general meeting approval of de-listing of the stock;
    • the board of directors’ approval of de-listing of bonds; and
    • the shareholders’ general meeting approval of de-listing of convertible bonds.
  • The members’ council (for a multi-member limited liability company) or the company’s owner (for a single member limited liability company) approval of de-listing of bonds.
  • For a securities investment fund, the investors’ congress approval of de-listing of the fund’s certificate.
  • For a public securities investment company, the shareholders’ general meeting approval of stock de-listing.

A listed company can only de-list its securities if de-listing is approved by a decision of the general meeting of shareholders passed by more than 50% of the voting shareholders who are not major shareholders.

If a company voluntarily de-lists from the Hanoi Stock Exchange or Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange, the application for de-listing must also include a plan to deal with the interests of shareholders and investors. The Hanoi Stock Exchange or Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange must consider the request for de-listing within ten and 15 days from the receipt of a valid application, respectively.

Transfer duties payable on the sale of shares in a company

Depending on whether the seller is an individual or a corporate entity, the following taxes will apply:

  • Capital gains tax. Capital gains tax is a form of income tax that is payable on any premium on the original investor’s actual contribution to capital or its costs to purchase such capital. Foreign companies and local corporate entities are subject to a corporate income tax of 20%. However, if the assets transferred are securities, a foreign corporate seller is subject to corporate income tax of 0.1% on the gross transfer price.
  • Personal income tax. If the seller is an individual resident, personal income tax will be imposed at the rate of 20% of the gains made, and 0.1% on the sales price if the transferred assets are securities. An individual tax resident is defined as a person who:
    • stays in Vietnam for 183 days or longer within a calendar year;
    • stays in Vietnam for a period of 12 consecutive months from his arrival in Vietnam;
    • has a registered permanent residence in Vietnam; or
    • rents a house in Vietnam under a lease contract of a term of at least 90 days in a tax year.

If the seller is an individual non-resident, he is subject to personal income tax at 0.1% on the gross transfer price, regardless of whether there is any capital gain.

Payment of the above transfer taxes is mandatory in Vietnam.

Regulatory approvals

The investor will need to register the capital contribution and purchase of shares if either:

  • The target is operating in one of the 267 conditional sectors referred to in the 2015 Investment Law.
  • The capital contribution and purchase of shares results in foreign investors owning 51% or more of the target’s charter capital (in particular, from below 51% to more than 51% and from 51% to above 51%).

The local Department of Planning and Investment where the target is located must issue its final approval within 15 days from the receipt of a valid registration application. However, in practice, this procedure can take several months due to the workload of certain central authorities and the lack of clear guidance documents. Therefore, the registration requirement can cause substantial delays to the whole M&A process.

In other cases, the target company only needs to register change of membership / shareholders at the Business Registration Division.

Restrictions on repatriation of profits and/ or foreign exchange rules for foreign companies

If the target company in Vietnam already has an investment registration certificate, it must open a direct investment capital account at a licensed bank in Vietnam. Payment for a share purchase by a foreign investor must be conducted through this account. The account can be denominated in Vietnamese dong or a foreign currency. In addition, if the foreign investor is an offshore investor, it will also need to open a capital account at a commercial bank operating in Vietnam to carry out the payment on the seller’s account and receive profits.

If the target company in Vietnam does not have an investment registration certificate, the foreign investor will need to open an indirect investment capital account for payment to the seller and remittance of profits.

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Please do contact the author Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions on the above. Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

 

 

 

Vietnam – Wind Power Breaking News – One of the first foreign financed Wind PPAs signed – Duane Morris advised on this transaction – What you must know

 

EAB New Energy GmbH (“EAB”), a German privately held SME with business activities around the world (Asia, Latin America, South Africa), engaged Duane Morris Vietnam LLC to advise on one of the very first privately financed Wind Energy Power Purchase Agreements for a wind power project in Vietnam – the “Mui Dinh” wind project (SPV el-wind Mui Dinh LLC) with a total investment value at final stage of about 60 Million USD.

EAB, in close co-operation with its subsidiary in Vietnam – WPV Wind Power Vietnam LLC, has received the Construction Permit for the wind power plant in Ninh Thuan province and will start the wind farm construction works in due course. Duane Morris Vietnam LLC advised EAB in the negotiation of the Wind Power Purchase Agreement with the Electricity of Vietnam (“EVN”) to connect into to the national electricity and sell electricity to EVN (the “Project”). The Wind Power Purchase Agreement was signed on 01 February 2016. This is one of the first signed Wind Power PPA in Vietnam and EAB is one of the first foreign companies with this success.

Given the fact that Vietnam’s wind energy potential is highly appreciated by investors in comparison to its ASEAN neighbours, and very good for building large wind power plants, the success of this Project is considered to pave the way for development of another 40 wind power development in Vietnam, roughly 513,360 megawatts.

This is the beginning of a sizeable privately financed wind energy sector in Vietnam.

Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you want to know more details on the above or need our assistance in your project. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

 

 

Lawyer in Vietnam Oliver Massmann SOLAR ROOFTOP PROJECT KEY DRIVERS

1. What are the key factors that are driving and restraining the ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER projects market in Vietnam?
In our view, following factors influence investors’ decision in investing in Rooftop Solar Power (RSP) projects in Vietnam:
• Low FIT: the proposed draft law suggests that ‘when electricity generated is higher than electricity consumed, the difference shall be purchased by the purchaser at the connection point, with the electricity tariff is 3150 VND/kWh (excluding value added tax, equivalent of 15 USDcents/kWh). Electricity tariff shall be adjusted according to the fluctuations of the exchange rate between VND/USD’.
• Lack of information on solar power: As a RSP project investment costs are relatively high, investors seek necessary information to support their investment decision. Nevertheless, there is no complete survey or complete source of information on solar energy that investors may access.
• Legal framework: The legal framework for solar power plants are under development. The MOIT is now working on a new draft decree to deal with difficulties that investors may face including application for tax incentives, import of equipment, convenient funding plans, etc.
• Other considerations such as investment costs, technology, etc.

2. Questions regarding cumulative installed capacity:
i. As of December 2013, the cumulative installed capacity for solar PV was 4 MW. What is your estimate of cumulative installed capacity till end of 2015?
The Vietnamese solar PV market is still very small with only around 4.5 MWp installed capacity at the end of 2014. Vietnam is expected to increase to around 7 MWp until 2020 and 1,500 MWp until 2030 with a respective share in renewable power generation capacity of 1.2% (by 2020) and 12.8% (by 2030). I do not have the exact number of cumulative installed capacity in 2015 but I estimate that it should have reached 5MWp.
ii. In your opinion, rooftop solar power installation accounted for how many percent of total solar PV installations? ( 2%?, 5%?)
We do not have access to any official source of latest information on specific numbers of RSP installations and total solar PV installations. Nevertheless, as noted in our answer to your Question 3 above, Vietnam has roughly 15,000 small scale PV off-grid applications, by the end of 2014. Based on such records, the rough percentage of installations of rooftop solar power installations would be 40% of the total solar PV installations (i.e. 6,000 RSP installations for solar home systems and small size PV systems for public use vs. 9,000 ground mounted PV installations for BTS, telecommunication use, public lightening systems and solar signal lights).
iii. What is the expected growth rate from 2016-2020? Is the growth rate of the industry moving in the right direction to achieve the proposed target? (if any?)
It is expected to achieve around 7 MWp until 2020 (growth rate 40% compared to 2016). Yes, the growth rate is moving in the right direction.

3. We are trying to identify the key end-users for ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER systems. What is the percentage (approx.) installed capacity among each of them: Residential, Commercial (Buildings) and Others (Car parking facilities, etc.
We do not have specific figures of RSP system’s installed capacity but according to a recent report of solar power in general, by the end of 2014, roughly 15,000 small scale PV off-grid applications with a total capacity of 3,600 kWp, the vast majority being <200 Wp of size only a few with more than 1kWp, were installed in Viet Nam. Of those, around 5,000 are solar home systems (SHS) with a size of 20-200Wp, 2,100 are telecommunication and BTS systems (300-4,000 Wp) and more than 1,000 are small size PV systems for public use such as in community centers, schools or medical centers (up to 3,000 Wp), which are deployed in rural and mountainous areas or on islands. Furthermore, around 5,000 solar signal lights (20-100 Wp) and 2,000 public lighting systems (50-250 Wp) were installed alongside streets and highways throughout the country.

4. Questions regarding cost:
i. What is the installation cost involved per kWp among different end-user segments in your country? (Residential, Commercial, Community) How is it likely to change in the future?
Residential/Community: $2,500 to 3,000 per kWp
Commercial: $4,500 per kWp
The installation costs can be reduced in future thank to increasing use of locally made products in solar power system and commitments to support including investment costs of the Government of Vietnam.
ii. What is the percentage break-up of installation costs among the various components in a ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER system? (Module, Charge controller, battery, inverter etc.)
Let take an example of a PV at the capacity of 1KWp/2KVA, the percentage of components costs exclusive of costs paid to installation of works by workers will be as follows:
Components Unit Price (USD)
Solar Panel 12 1,636
Battery 6 819
Inverter 1 410
Controller 2 367
3,232

5. What kind of solar panels are largely in demand for ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER systems (Monocrystalline/polycrystalline panels, thin film technologies)? Why? What is the average price range ($/Watt p) for these solar panels in Vietnam?
Monocrystalline/polycrystalline panels are popular in Vietnam as off-grid installed capacity in Viet Nam is dominated by smaller applications such as Solar Home Systems (SHS). Depending the quality and the brand name, the price is different. The average price is 3-5USD/Watt p.

6. How do you hear about new projects and could you please provide me with more examples of key recent projects? How these projects are funded? (banks, financial institutions, government, self-funded)
Basic information of big projects is usually published on the internet. Recently, Vietnam is going to build the first solar power project in Quang Nam with the installed capacity of 120 MW per year, invested by a domestic company Indochina Energy Industry Company Limited.

7. How many system integrators or installers are involved in installing ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER systems? Are there more local players or MNCs? What is the role of system integrator in such contracts? Who are the top 5 system integrators in Vietnam?
We assume that not more than 20 companies, most of them are local and produces components in solar cells/panels and related electronic devices (e.g. – controllers), act as integrators and/or installers. Major players including Hung Gia (Installation), Vtechco (Installation), Vu Phong (Installation), Nam Thai Ha JSC (Solar Materials Incorporated), Red Sun Solar (Solar Cells), Viet Linh AST (solar system), NICS Integration System (Installation).
We do not have specific market shares figures of biggest players in the market but are able to involve a professional market research company to do this job on your behalf.

8. Who are the top 5 competitors/ which brands of solar modules are highly popular in the ROOFTOP SOLAR POWER market?
The rooftop solar power market in Vietnam is still developing and there are not so many competitors yet. The popular names of Rooftop Solar Power Market are Red sun solar, Viet Vmicro JS, Panasonic, Megasun, IREX.

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Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

THANK YOU !

Lawyer in Vietnam Oliver Massmann Latest Draft Decree on Casino Business allows Vietnamese citizens to gamble in Vietnam

According to public media, a new version of the draft decree on casino (the Casino Draft) has been internally circulated to interested parties including senior experts/consultants and other State bodies of Vietnam. While full text of the draft is not made public, local newspapers give us some hints about how the Casino Draft would be shaped. For example, it is more likely that Vietnamese citizens of 21 years old or more who are able to show evidence on their ‘financial capacity’ and afford the entrance fee may gamble at casinos. Detailed conditions are still on their way.
One more notable change is that registered total investment capital would be reduced from $4 billion to $2 billion. Please be noted that the above threshold include both borrowings and equity though it is still unclear about the minimum equity that the investor must contribute.
For now, Vietnam has 04 areas which are planned to aim at entertainment complexes that have casinos inside, which are Van Don (Quang Ninh Province), Hoi An (Quang Nam Province), Ho Tram (Vung Tau Province) and Phu Quoc (Kien Giang Province). So far, only Ho Tram Project came into operations while other are still in the process of infrastructure development. However we understand that the above list is not closed. This means that investors may actively propose new areas for the Government’s consideration.
It is expected that the Casino Draft will be officially issued in March 2016 following the Communist Party’s Congress.

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Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Vietnamese Clean Development Mechanism CDM market – The perspective of an emission certificate buyer

Overview of the CDM market in Vietnam

Certain projects for the reduction of emissions in Vietnam are suitable for purchasing certified emission reductions (CERs) under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The buyers sign an agreement with local project owners in order to obtain rights to CERs from the project. Purchasers are usually ultimate consumers and speculators. Most CERs are eventually used by power companies and other purchasers from the EU area that meet the requirements as well as governments of developing countries etc. The buyers of primary CERs obtain at the European Climate Exchanges a discount compared to the secondary market price because they carry considerable delivery risks and typically have met CDM related expenses. Delivery risks arise typically through project execution, but also in form of CDM registration- and validation-related risks. Validation-related risks are highlighted due to the fact that out of 85 projects which have been uploaded for evaluation in Vietnam only 8 have been registered yet. Over 40% of the projects have been under validation for a year.

Vietnam’s market potential

Vietnam could have the potential to generate up to 10 million CERs. However, it is subject to acceleration of the validation process, i.e. the publication of standard CEF for the Vietnamese grid, the encouragement of required local approvals etc. Due to delays in project validation and construction, the scope will be probably smaller. The global recession has adversely affected the access to financing, which in turn affected particularly the hydropower sector (the main CDM project type in Vietnam).

Due to uncertainties with regard to the system after 2012, projects have to be registered or ordered as quickly as possible. Although the market price of CERs has decreased due to the impact of global recession, there is still a sufficient demand for Vietnam’s CERs. Purchasers are prepared to change to new product fields and are particularly interested in projects with a high sustainable development value for the local community.

CER portfolio management

Compliance buyers have to administer their portfolio intensively in order to reflect their intended and actually provided loans. Higher prices are paid usually in connection with project types involving high registration and verification risks. Furthermore, higher costs could be incurred within projects which are well advanced in respect of construction, but it will be dependent on this and not on increased registration risks. In case of projects which have already been started, the earlier CDM consideration as part of an additionality analysis has to be proven. Distribution of risk is an important risk management instrument. For example, many buyers may have a big percentage of their portfolio in Chinese CERs, so it is recommendable to have a look at other markets, such as SE Asia etc. Distribution of risk extends right up to technology type.

Most important project types in Vietnam

– hydropower: most common project in Vietnam. Validation risks are named as medium and verification risks are low. Although in these projects are a long construction period and often numerous delays.
– wastewater used for generate energy: 7 projects are already applied for registration. Risk of validation is low to medium, construction time is low (often less than one year) and the risks of validation is medium size.
– other renewable energy types: wind is a high potential, so far only one project existing. Also bio energy project have a high potential. Risks of validation and verification are low to medium, even there is a long construction period.
– MSW-treatment- are only few projects so far, but there is a high potential for composting. Risks of validation are low to medium, medium risks of verification and medium period of construction.

Most important feasible project types in Vietnam

Case studies:

BinhThuan: 30 MW wind farm project

This project, construction of the first wind farm in Vietnam, is run by the Vietnam Renewable Energy JSC. The first turbine group has been already installed on the construction site. In April 2009, the project has been registered with the CDM EB. A production of electricity of 91.571 MWh/year is expected, whereas over 59,000 t of CO2 emissions/year are to be reduced.

Case study – Cu Chi 1000t/d MSW processing plant
This project was developed by Tam SinhNghia (TSN) and includes composting of 1000 t/d of municipal solid waste (MSW). The expected emissions reduction of CH4 avoidance is estimated at roughly 1 million tCO2e (more than seven years of credited period).

Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

INTERESTED IN DOING BUSINESS IN VIETNAM? VISIT: www.vietnamlaws.xyz

THANK YOU VERY MUCH!