Tag Archives: renewable

Renewable Energy Vietnam – Duane Morris – We get deals done:

  1. Describe the role of yourself/company/department within renewable energy in Vietnam. 

Duane Morris, as both advisor and advocate, guides clients through the complex legal, financial and political issues that pervade the energy industry. For both producers and policy-makers, as well as industry participants and consumers, Duane Morris attorneys help manage the dynamic challenges of the energy market. Our attorneys counsel our clients on regulations, transactions, litigation, project development, facility construction, financing, government relations and policy matters concerning energy. Our attorneys draw upon legal and industry experience with fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable sources to find creative solutions to meet our clients’ needs. We have been involved in several renewable energy deals in Vietnam until successful close of the respective deal. We can get bankable deals done.

  1. Describe those individuals/companies/government departments with whom you operate mostly with?

Electricity Regulatory Authority of Vietnam, Institute of Energy, General Department of Energy, EVN, Ministry of Planning and Investment.

  1. Explain the purpose of each of these connections whether they be formal, contracted relationships or informal relationships

They are formal relationships, where I either acted as the Chairman of the Legal Sector Committee of EuroCham, or work on behalf of our clients to connect with the authorities to get better understanding of the regulations in the sector and propose necessary changes.

  1. Describe any customs or habits that are features of doing business in the renewable energy industry? Likewise describe any customs or habits that are features of doing business in Vietnam. Explain how these customs or habits are used?

Build and maintain relationship with Government officials at all levels (central, provincial) is a must. Meetings can be formal or sometimes invite them out for lunch/ dinner. Do not go into too much details of your project or investment plan in the initial meeting. Save it for the next meetings. The first one should only be for “getting to know each other” purpose.

Vietnam has a consensus-driven system, meaning everyone has to say something. Any person has veto right. Thus, to make sure that a decision in favor of your investment is made, you have to gain support of every person who has the decision-making right.

In addition, decision making process in Vietnam has to go through many levels and thus takes quite long. Be patient then.

You should always set up a meeting some weeks in advance. Although some officials are able to communicate in English, it is advised to have a translator/ interpreter.

  1. In your opinion, who are the ‘big players’ within the renewable energy industry within Vietnam? This applies to private companies, national companies, government departments etc. 

EVN as the sole off-taker and its generation companies are the main players in the sector. Besides, the General Department of Energy, the Electricity Regulatory of Vietnam (both under the Ministry of Industry and Trade) play an important role in setting regulatory framework.

  1. Explain any rules or laws that dictate how you must operate within the renewable energy industry and within Vietnam. 

Wind: Decision No. 37/2011/QD-TTg, Circular No. 32/2012/TT-BCT

Biomass: Decision 24/2014/QD-TTg, Circular 44/2015/TT-BCT

Solid-waste power: Decision 31/2014/QD-TTg, Circular 32/2015/TT-BCT

Solar: Decision 11/2017/QD-TTg, Circular guiding the Decision and promulgating the PPA is being drafted

There are a number of laws and documents regulating an investment in Vietnam. I just name some major laws: Investment Law, Enterprise Law, Labor Law, Commercial Law, Civil Code, etc.

  1. In your opinion, to what extent does a hierarchy exist within the renewable energy industry in Vietnam? 

The development of renewable energy industry does not catch up with economic development speed. Although the Government has set out the increasing role of this sector in the energy development plan, I am afraid that the Government may fail to meet its target due to lack of support policies and bankable PPAs.

  1. Describe the main changes that have occurred to the renewable energy industry in Vietnam in the last 10 years. 

The renewable industry in Vietnam is very young. Indeed, it only started developing since the adoption of the Wind Decision in 2011. Following that Decision, the Prime Minister continued completing the legal framework for the sector by introducing Biomass Decision and Solid-Waste Decision in 2014, and the latest Decision being the Solar Decision issued in April 2017. The adoption of these policies was the joint effort of many relevant ministries, including the General Director of Energy under the Ministry of Industry and Trade, which was established at the end of 2011 to improve state management in the sector.

In 2009,  the first factory producing solar panels with total investment of USD10 million came into operation in Vietnam. Later in 2010, GE Energy invested USD61 million to establish the first factory producing wind turbines in Hai Duong. This was considered as a boost for the renewable energy market. However, by 2015, renewable energy only accounted for 5% in the total energy output, in which there is no wind and solar power but only small hydro power.

FYI, the first wind power plant came into operation in 2012 in Binh Thuan with a capacity of 30 MW. Recently, the first solar plant in Dong Thap also commenced its operation.
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Please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above. Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you!

VIETNAM – SOLAR POWER – AMAZING BREAKING NEWS – THE VERY FIRST SOLAR LAW – GOVERNMENT’S SUPPORTING REGIME FOR SOLAR POWER PROJECTS IN VIETNAM FINALLY OUT

 

On 11 April 2017, the Prime Minister officially approved the issuance of Decision No. 11/2017/QD-TTg on supporting regime for the development of solar power projects in Vietnam.

We note below some major points in this Decision:

Feed-in-tariff (FIT) rate

EVN is responsible for buying the whole electric output from on-grid solar power projects with the electric buying price at the point of electricity receipt to be 2,086 Vietnamese dong/kWh (equivalent to 9.35 UScents/kWh) (VAT excluded). This FIT only applies for on-grid projects with capacity of solar cell being over 16% or of solar module being over 15%.

There is no FIT for rooftoop solar power projects if such projects are not grid-connected. This is one of the differences compared with the previous Draft Solar Decision which sets a seperate FIT for rooftop projects when they are connected to the grid.

The FIT is based on the VND/USD exchange rate issued by the State Bank of Vietnam on 10 April 2017 (USD 1 = VND22,316). This FIT will be adjusted according to the fluctuation of the VND/USD exchange rate as specified in the standard Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) to be issued by the Ministry of Industry and Trade. We note that the solar PPA will have a term of 20 years from the commercial operation date of the solar plant and can be extended/ renewed based on regulations in effect at that time.

Investment incentives

Investment capital: Investors may mobilize capital from domestic or overseas organizations and individuals to invest in solar power projects.

Import duty: Solar power projects are exempted from import duty on goods imported to create fixed assets of the projects; components, materials and semi-finished products which are not available at home for the project’s operation.

Corporate income tax: solar power projects will also enjoy the same corporate income tax exemption and reduction as projects in sectors receiving investment incentives according to the current regulations on taxation. For example, corporate income tax rate of 10% will be applied for 15 years, tax exemptions within 4 years and tax reduction by 50% in the next 9 years.

Land: Solar power projects, lines and transformer stations connected to the national grid enjoy the same exemptions and reductions in land use, land rental as projects being entitled for preferential investment treatment. Such incentives, among other things, include exemption of land rental within 3 years from the operation date of the project.

Projects included in the Power Master Plan

The Power Master Plan, whether it is national or provincial, only applies for on-grid solar projects.

Projects of 50MW or below will be approved by the Ministry of Industry and Trade to be included in the Power Master Plan, while those of more than 50MW will be approved by the Prime Minister.

Thus, it could be understood that off-grid and rooftop projects do not have to be included in the Power Master Plan. This will save the investors the hassle of negotiating the PPA with EVN.

The Decision has effect from 01 June 2017 to 30 June 2019.

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Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

 

 

Lawyer in Vietnam Oliver Massmann Solar Power Latest Updates on Draft Laws:

We have contacted the Department of Renewable Energy under the MOIT who is in charge of drafting this Decision. The Decision is still in a draft version (although it has been submitted to the Prime Minister for signature), thus can’t be published yet.

The final Decision will be issued this year but the exact timing is still uncertain.

Through our consultation with an official of the Department about the content of the Decision, for on-grid solar projects, the FIT rate will be 11.2 UScents/ kWh.

For on-grid rooftop solar projects, the rate will be 18 UScents/ kWh.

The rate in VND will be indicated in the final Decision based on the USD/VND exchange rate at that time and the MOIT will issue an Official Letter every year to adjust the rate in VND according to the fluctuation in the exchange rate.

Rooftop solar projects of less than 50kW will not have to connect to the grid. For those of more than 50kW, connection to the grid is required and an electricity operating permit must be obtained.

Please do not hesitate to contacts Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam.

Thank you !

Lawyer in Vietnam Oliver Massmann Biomass Power Plant Development – SMALL SCALE BIOMASS POWER PLANTS IN VIETNAM – HOW TO STRUCTURE IT RIGHT?

Vietnam’s economic dynamism over the past years has given rise to a swift increase inenergy demand. Electricity demand in the country has been growing in the double digits annually.Vietnam has experienced rapid economic growth since it made a shift from a highly centralised planned economy to a socialist-oriented market economy in the mid-80s. This also resulted in unprecedented growth in electricity demand, which has not been observed in any other regions or developing countries.Electricity demand in Vietnam is forecasted to increase by up to 14.2 pct. annually for the 2011-2015 period and 11.4 pct. for the 2016-2020 period, and the electricity demand is expected to increase 7 times to 800 billion Kwh in 2030.
In this context, the Vietnamese government identified the necessity that the available resources of renewable energies have to be exploited and expanded to meet such a big electricity demand. While hydroelectric energy, whose resource is abundant in Vietnam, shows certain potential risks, biomass energy could be a choice for development in Vietnam. This derives from Vietnam’s advantage of widespread agriculture. The capacity for sustainable power production from biomass amounts to just 150 million tons per annum, 700 – 780 MW for electricity generation alone can be reached.
Government’s policy with regards to renewable energies in general and biomass energy in particular
Vietnamese Government recognizes the importance of renewable energy in power development and reflects its objectives in the Master plan VII on energy development in Vietnam.The renewable energy is increasingly accounting for power sources (4.5% in 2020 and 6.0% in 2030 of the total power supply.The Master plan VII sets the renewable energy target rate at 5.6 pct. of total primary energy consumption by 2020 and 9.4 pct. by 2030. The Government’s target is to increasethe biomass power to 500 MW (0.6 pct. of electricity production) by 2020 and 2,000 MW (1.1 pct.) by 2030.
Further, on 24 March 2014, the Prime Minister issued Decision No. 24/2014/QD-TTg to provide mechanism to support biomass power plants. In particular, this Decision offers the following incentives to off-grid biomass power plants:
• Investment capital:
o The investor can mobilize capital from organizations and individuals in and out of the country for investing in implementation of biomass power projects
o Biomass power projects are entitled to incentives in terms of investment credits in accordance with prevailing legal provisions on investment credit and export credit of the State.
• Import tax: Biomass power projects are exempt from import tax for goods imported to create fixed assets for the projects; imported goods are materials, supplies and semi-products which have not been locally produced and imported for serving production of projects in accordance with prevailing legal provisions on export tax and import tax.
• Corporate income tax: The exemption, reduction of corporate income tax for biomass power projects will be conducted inthe same way as for projects which are subject to investment incentives under laws on taxation.
• Land use: Biomass power projects and power line and substation works for connecting to the national power grid are entitled to exemption or reduction of land use or land rent fees.
For on-grid biomass power projects, Electricity of Vietnam (“EVN”) is to buy all of the plant’s biomass energy output at the current price of 1,220 VND/kWh (excluding VAT, about 5.8 UScent). This price will be adjusted according to the fluctuation of the VND/USD exchange rate.
Market access for foreign investor
Currently, there is no foreign ownership restriction in energy sector in Vietnam. The foreign investor may choose among permitted investment forms: 100% foreign invested company, joint venture or public private partnership (“PPP”) in the form of BOT contract.
Starting up a biomass power plant
In order to construct a biomass power plant, foreign investors first need to apply for an investment certificate. The application process is quite complicated and involves many state agencies, with certain unpredictable issues occurring. However, as the new Investment Law and Enterprise Law, which mainly regulate investment environment in Vietnam, takes effect from 01 July 2015, it is expected that it will be more time saving and less complicated for foreign investors in the licensing process.
Either before or after the investor is on board (but in each case before the construction), it is necessary to establish the project enterprise and to secure investment certificates issued by competent authorities. Then, the project enterprise has to conclude negotiations with regard to a wide range of important project contracts including the land lease contract and the power purchase agreement (PPA).
Under the PPA, EVN (in case of network-dependent network) – or in rare cases also other buyers – undertake to purchase energy from a project enterprise for a definite period and at a specified rate. The PPA is probably the most important agreement to be negotiated because it determines the future income from the project. It is crucial that, according to the PPA, the project enterprise cannot be burdened with a penalty if the power supply is affected by small amounts of biomass. In view of the fact that at the moment there is only one buyer (EVN) for network-dependent power projects, the negotiations may be sometimes unilateral. Moreover, the electricity producers have to consider that the consumers (according to the Electricity Law) have a statutorily regulated right to renegotiate the purchase price in the medium term. They have to take it into account in their project planning.
The land or real estate lease contract in Vietnam should be kept rather simple, though the aspects of land sale approval and compensatory payments may be fraught with difficulties. Usually, the duration of such contracts should correspond at least to the loan repayment plan and, in addition, a considerable period for profit generation after the repayment of the loan should be agreed (as a rule 25-30 years). Furthermore, it is important to make sure that the land use rights of the project enterprise can be provided for the lender as security and are transferable.
Small scale biomass power project in Vietnam – How to structure it right?
Considering the monopoly role of EVN as well as tough negotiation of the PPA, investors could still get out of this trouble. According to Article 1.2 of Circular No. 56/2014/TT-BCT promulgating methods to determine electricity generation price and examination steps of the PPA, the important requirement to negotiate with EVN is whether it is an on-grid or off-grid project. If it is an on-grid project with capacity of more than 30 MW or under 30 MW but voluntarily participating in the power market, the investor must negotiate with EVN. This indicates that if the project is off-grid, there will be no requirement to negotiate with EVN.
Moreover, in order to operate small scale biomass power project, the investor needs to obtain a power operation permit issued by the local People’s Committee or the local Department of Industry and Trade as authorized by the local People’s Committee.To get such permit, the operator has to negotiate (or sign in principle) a PPA with a buyer. In case the project is off-grid and renewable energy project (biomass), the operator can negotiate with a local distributor/buyer assigned by the local People’s Committee.

Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

INTERESTED IN DOING BUSINESS IN VIETNAM? VISIT: www.vietnamlaws.xyz

THANK YOU VERY MUCH!

Investments in the Energy Sector

Future market development and opportunities for foreign players
– Vietnam’s strategies and master plan with regard to the expansion of renewable energies by 2015 and visions for the years ahead…

General overview:

Vietnam’s requirement for renewable energies rises sustainably (in the past, in the present and in the future by an average of 10% per annum). The country becomes increasingly dependent on the world energy price because the growth of domestic energy sources is most likely not able to keep up with the economic growth rate. The high potential of the hydroelectric power will be consumed primarily in the next decade, with gas and coal supplies being limited, so that in the near future Vietnam will have to import coal for energy production. In this context, the Vietnamese government identified the necessity that the available resources of renewable energies have to be exploited and expanded, and the currently existing obstacles gradually removed.

Potential and current status of the expansion of renewable energies:

Vietnam has potential resources of renewable energies. These sources, which can be exploited and actually utilized, include small-scale hydropower, wind power, biomass, biogas, bio fuel, energy from domestic waste, solar energy and geothermal energy.

– Small-scale hydropower: taking into consideration the economic efficiency and profitability, it is classified as the most viable form of renewable energies. More than 1 000 locations show a potential for the development of small-scale hydropower in the range from 100 kW to 30 MW and a total capacity of more than 4 000.
– Wind power: Vietnam’s potential for wind power is classified as very high. However, as currently no reliable studies exist, the resources cannot be precisely quantified. In fact, available data on wind power potential show discrepancies. Figures from 1,785 MW up to more than 8 700 MW or even way above 100 000 MW are mentioned.
– Biomass: as the agriculture in Vietnam is widespread, so a high potential of power from biomass is available, too. The capacity for sustainable power production from biomass amounts to just 150 million tons per annum, 700 – 780 MW for electricity generation alone can be reached.
– Solar energy: Total number of sunshine hours up to 1400 – 3000 hours/year, the average total radiation amounts to 230 – 250 kcal/cm2, and strengthens towards the south. Solar energy can be used for water boiling, power production and other purposes, as e.g. drying, cooking etc.
– Geothermal energy: the recent figures show that Vietnam’s potential for geothermal energy amounts to about 200 – 340 MW.

Current status:
Currently, the consumption of renewable energies consists to the greatest extent in energy recovery from biomass in its original form. The proportion of energy from raw biomass to total energy requirement is high and amounts to roughly 38% of the entire final consumption of energy and about 30% of total initial energy consumption.

Power production for grid connection: There are only two kinds of small-scope hydropower with a capacity of over 300 MW; 30 MW from biomass (sugar cane waste) and 2.4 MW from household waste.

Network-independent power supply: Renewable energy sources have been utilized to supply rural areas, distant and remote territories as well as islands. 1.25 MW solar power, 1.2 MW wind power and more than 50 MW small and micro hydropower plants have been built and operated.

Biofuel: The government signed a decision on the approval of a project for “biofuel development”. In the country, 6 projects for ethanol production have been established, with each project showing an average capacity of 100 million liter /year. Several of the projects will start the production in 2010.

Summary of the strategies for the development of renewable energies and development targets in Vietnam

Development perspectives: – the development of renewable energy with economic feasibility is given priority; – the development of renewable energy to supply rural areas with electricity is fostered and supported; – support and investment in further development of certain technologies with regard to renewable energies which are not economically viable yet; – the development of renewable energies in cooperation with the government based on the principle of effective combination of market mechanisms; – the development of renewable energies in close relation to sustainable economic, social and environment-friendly development in order to reduce the effects of the climate change and the development of the environment.

Overall goals: – Improvement of the energy infrastructure, extension of energy sources, ensuring energy security, environmental protection and sustainable development, mitigation of damages with regard to the effects of climate changes; – to increase the national production and the national consumption of renewable energies; – Completion of the energy program in the mountainous region and contribution to the accomplishment of government objectives to provide electricity for rural areas.

Special goals: – to increase the share of renewable energies in the overall national energy production – from 1.3 billion kWh in 2008, by at least 7 billion kWh in 2015 and 20 billion in 2025; – by 2020, 100% of households in rural areas ought to be supplied with electricity; – increase of the number and the area of application of cooking devices which can be powered by solar energy, namely from the current very low percentage to 18 million m2 (in 2015) and 9 million m2 (in 2015); – increase and expansion of the area of application of biogas technologies from 0.12 million m3 of the current construction volume to 5 million m3 in 2015 and 15 million m3 in 2025; – to increase the number of households utilizing highly efficient biomass; – to increase the number of households using devices for conversion of efficient biomass (cooking devices with more than 30% efficiency) from the current low number to 1 million households in 2015 and 4 million households in 2025; – in 2015, the production of ethanol and vegetable oil should amount to 250 000 tons, which corresponds to 1% of the crude oil requirement. In 2015, the production of ethanol and bio-oil should reach 1.8 million tons and cover 5% of the crude oil requirement.

Solutions for implementation

General principles:

– all organizations, individuals, domestic enterprises, foreign enterprises and organizations have to be encouraged to participate; – promotion of projects concerning renewable energies in order to ensure better marketing;
– the government should support the national grid connection at the same or lower cost compared to avoidable economic cost of projects within the scope of renewable energies;
– the government should simplify the operation of the market; – preferential prices for renewable energies should be fixed on the basis of cost effectiveness aspects; – the government should support the use of renewable energies for the supply of rural areas with electricity;
– the government should support the initial phase for the promotion of installation and upgrading of technologies related to renewable energies for effective heat and fuel production and its use, based on the principles of standard and quality assurance.

Solutions and roadmap for implementation:
– establishing a national liaison body for the development of renewable energies; – preparation of a roadmap for organizational structure development; – preparation of a roadmap for supporting grid connection of the projects regarding renewable energies; – preparation of a roadmap for renewable energy development for heat and biofuel production; – preparation of most favorable terms of registration for CDM for projects based on renewable energies.

On financing of renewable energies in Vietnam: The basics

In order to be able to keep pace with growing requirement Vietnam’s for energy, an increase of the production capacity by approximately 4,000 MW per annum and its supply into the national grid are required.

Based on rapid shrinkage of Vietnamese gas and oil reserves (which will be exhausted within coming 20 to 30 years), the experts predict that, from 2020, in order to ensure the operation of its power plants Vietnam will have to import a volume of 100 million tons of coal per annum. Consequently, Vietnam will be dependent on the import of fossil fuels, unless it develops its enormous potential of renewable energy. Despite the negligible current capacities of renewable energy plants, Vietnam is blessed with considerable potential in this area which can be developed as alternative energy sources for the benefit of Vietnam. In spite of the fact that the current legal framework is very underdeveloped yet, the government, namely the Ministry of Industry and Trade, has adopted a constructive and supportive course which, in combination with political and financial assistance on the part of international institutions, makes this sector increasingly attractive for foreign investors.

Rich sources of clean energy

Vietnam has countless clean energy sources: Its abundance of streams, sources and nine main rivers gives Vietnam a place among the top 14 of countries with the best conditions for conversion of hydropower into electricity; its first-class coastal locations can boast a wind force of 860 to 1410 kWh/qm per annum or 800 to 1000 kWh/qm per annum; the tropical climate provides solar resources with a solar radiation between 3 and 4.5 kWh/gm/day in winter and about 4.5 to 6.5 kWh/qm/day in summer. Against this background, some experts even claim that Vietnam can completely cover its requirement for electricity by the use of renewable energies.

The government has gradually created a legal framework for the promotion of development of renewable energies in Vietnam. This new legislation does not establish any restriction for foreign investors that invest in renewable energies and introduces a favorable tariff for renewable power plants with an installed generation capacity of up to 30 kWh. According to this legislation, Electric of Vietnam (EVN), the only electric power company (and the only electricity buyer), will acquire electricity generated by such plants at approximately 11 US cent per kWh during peak load times of the dry season. The corporate income tax (CIT) for these project enterprises is limited to a rate of 10% and granted for a time frame of 15 years; in special circumstances, it can be even extended to just under 30 years. The entire equipment and machinery which are imported as inherent parts of solar or wind power plants are duty-free. Moreover, CDM projects (Clean Development Mechanism) are entitled to subventions provided that the production costs exceed the selling price.

… but challenges lie ahead …

Despite this country’s undisputable potential of resources of alternative energy, investors bringing in funds for Vietnam’s production efficiency within the scope of renewable energies are confronted with considerable challenges:

1 The lack of reliable legal framework conditions.

2 Protracted negotiations of electricity purchasing agreement with the EVN.

3 The lack of electricity supply tariffs which would be stringently required for successful renewable energy projects.

The supply tariff is a preferential price which is paid by power suppliers when purchasing electricity generated by an authorized producer of renewable energy for a timeframe from 15 to 20 years for electricity units fed into the grid. The payment for such renewable power plants is financed regularly by allocation of cost to all consumers as well as partly by government aid for renewable energies. The combination of preferential tariffs and the obligation to purchase enables feed-in tariffs to function in monopolistic or oligopolistic markets. Presently, the Vietnamese law does not provide for any feed-in tariffs. Article 31 of the Electricity Law provides principally that the producer price (i.e. the selling price ex power plant) must not exceed the tariff determined by the competent government agency.

EVN still refers to an out-dated rate according to Decision No. 2014/QD-BCN (of 2007) with a tariff for hydropower between 2 and 5 US$ cent and for combined gas turbine power plants from 3.5 to 4.7 US$ cent. Despite the fact that the preferential tariff was fixed for smaller renewable power plants, the price of 11 US$ cent /kWh is applied only during peak periods in the raining season. Energy purchasing at other times costs about 11 cent/kWh.

The main obstacle for electricity purchasing by EVN at an increased price is the low retail price. Even though from 2010 the electricity rates will be based on market prices, the prices for households being ultimate consumers remain a matter of annually determined fixed prices. Meanwhile, a fixed maximum price for consumers form the industry and service sector is applicable. Against the background of the risk of social unrest, a substantial increase of the retail price in the short term is not realizable.

The monopoly of the EVN is one of the main reasons why investors are discouraged from entering the renewable energy market. EVN is currently de facto the only buyer and controls the electricity feed-in, transmission and supply to ultimate consumers. A free competition in electricity generation can hardly be guaranteed because EVN, being the only buyer, operates also enterprises just in this sector. It was criticized that the National Load Dispatch Center or A0, a subdivision of EVN that is authorized to electricity feed-in for the entire national grid, does not draw on the capacity of expensive oil-fired or gas turbine power plants even in case of marginal underload of the power grid.

There is a great deal of administrative barriers which have to be broken down by investors when initiating a power project in Vietnam. A power plant project has to be in accord with the master plan at national level or at the level of a particular province. If a project is not listed in these master plans, it requires the approval on the part of the Prime Minister or the Ministry of Industry and Trade. Furthermore, before obtaining the investment certificate, foreign investors have to conclude a Power Purchase Agreement with the EVN. PPA negotiations and application for investment certificates as well as power plant operator’s licenses may take months if not years.

How can investors survive?

Projects in the renewable energy sector are – as long as no feed-in tariffs are introduced – not viable. Insofar, 2015 should be a good year with a prospect for implementation of a meaningful legislation in this area; namely, the national Master Plan for Renewable Energies and the Decree on power feed-in tariff. The adoption of such documents will clarify the attitude of the government towards the development in the renewable energy sector.

At this stage, a clear and feasible strategy regarding the investment form is a prerequisite for economic involvement in this growth sector. Project financing (as limited recourse financing) is a classical but effective approach to capital raising on a bigger scale. No large projects in the range of renewable energies have been realized in Vietnam so far, but there were already a number of financially intensive BOT power projects in the thermal power sector (namely Phu My 2.2 and Phu My 3) which can have a role model function also in the renewable energy sector. Moreover, on a case-by-case basis, preferential tariffs and other financial incentives as a basis for BOT projects can be negotiated.

Certified emission reductions (CER) trading can be taken into consideration because of continuing great demand for CERs from projects with high sustainability value for local community. The focus should be on CDM projects with smaller and medium financial volume as well as lower guarantee and delivery risk. However, CER trading should not be regarded as primary financing option. In view of yet very rudimentary legal framework for CDM projects as well as the lack of precise and official statistics on the basis of which future emissions would be determined, the validation necessary for such trading is much more difficult. It is to be stated that from 85 projects selected for validation in Vietnam yet only eight have been verified, and only one project (Rang Dong oilfield gas separation and utilization) was granted a CER.
In a growth market like Vietnam, well thought-out planning and thorough understanding of local legal situation and the obligatory approval procedures are basic prerequisites for successful investments. The renewable energy sector is no exception here.

Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

INTERESTED IN DOING BUSINESS IN VIETNAM? VISIT: www.vietnamlaws.xyz

THANK YOU VERY MUCH!