Tag Archives: investment

Vietnam plays a calculated game of risk with new solar PPA

Vietnam appears to be betting on gung ho enthusiasm to kick start solar power development rather than taking bold steps to deliver a stable backbone to the industry.  It’s a gamble that may pay off in the short term but might also saddle the country with poorly-conceived and under-performing projects in the long term.


To much fanfare, Vietnam’s Ministry of Industry and Trade (MoIT) released Circular 16 in including final template power purchase agreements (PPA) for the solar energy sector. The circular and PPA templates follow a draft issued back in April this year, and are stated to be mandatory templates for utility-scale and rooftop solar projects.


The original draft PPA for utility scale grid projects was met with criticism, and declared non-bankable by most experts and commentators (despite hewing closely to the previously-issued standard PPA for wind projects). Unfortunately, little has changed with the final version of the PPA.  Would-be investors raised serious concerns over the amount and type of risk the PPA sought to shift to investors, and the message delivered was that unless the government was willing to address some of the most glaring problems, few reputable foreign solar players and, just as importantly, few reputable financiers would be likely to sign up.


Having largely ignored recommendations provided, the final text does little to inspire confidence. The final PPA does not improve upon the main critical issues highlighted in April.  Issues include a lack of measures to compensate producers for interruption in the ability to receive power, force majeure conditions, contract suspension, and settlement of disputes.


Tariff trouble


With the FiT rate of US$0.0935/kWh for grid-connected solar power projects confirmed, Circular 16 goes on to outline that the FiT is available for 20 years to projects, or parts of projects, that reach commercial operation before 30 June 2019.


As with the draft from April, the final PPA does not include any indexation of the FiT to the Consumer Price Index (CPI) to address inflation risks. In response to concerns over fluctuating exchange rates, the circular does state that “the FiT for the following year shall be adjusted according to the central exchange rates of the Vietnamese dong against the US dollar announced by the State Bank of Vietnam on the last working day of the preceding year.”  Annual adjustment is better than none but it wouldn’t have been difficult to spread adjustments throughout the year.


As a way to offset the relatively low tariff, and inflation risks, investors may be able to benefit from tax exemptions on raw materials and supplies imported for their projects, corporate income tax relief, and an exemption from land rental fees within the first three years of commencing commercial operation.


A risk too far?


Under Decision 11 (which also set the FiT) and the final version of the PPA appended to Circular 16, Electricity of Vietnam (EVN) is responsible for purchasing the entire power output from grid-connected projects at the stated FiT.


However, the PPA relieves EVN from payment obligations in cases where it is unable to take power due to a breakdown of the transmission or distribution grid. With many solar projects currently focused on few central locations, the capacity of existing facilities to absorb power must be a cause of some concern given the PPA’s transfer of such risk to power producers.


Worryingly, the PPA lacks any mechanism to compensate power producers should interruptions happen outside of their control. Not only does the PPA not provide for extension of time in case of force majeure, but if force majeure were to prevent a power producer from meeting its obligations for a year then EVN could unilaterally terminate the PPA with no compensation payable.  In such circumstances, the power producer is left alone in the dark.


Such arrangements might be acceptable to projects that manage to negotiate clear ‘take or pay’ terms and/or government guarantees, but it is highly questionable whether and to what extent either of these will be possible in the current climate.  As a direct consequence, it is equally questionable to what extent private finance will be prepared to bear the risk, a fact that will prompt capital to seek more favourable conditions in other markets.


Playing by house rules


If the above portends of problems in the relationship with EVN, investors may be further discouraged by the lack of specifics in terms of dispute resolution. The PPA is governed by Vietnamese law and does not itself expressly include the right to agree on international arbitration to resolve disputes, a condition that would typically be considered an important requirement.


As it stands, disputes can be submitted to the Electricity Renewable Energy Department (formerly the General Directorate of Energy) for mediation. If that doesn’t work, there is the option of escalating the issue to the Electricity Regulatory Authority of Vietnam (ERAV) or pursuing litigation in Vietnam’s courts.


The PPA does allow for “another dispute resolution body to be agreed by the parties”, which potentially opens the door for sellers to negotiate with EVN on dispute resolution, including offshore or even domestic arbitration.  But it is not clear if EVN will agree to directly amend PPAs to allow for express prior agreement on offshore arbitration or simply open the door for such a discussion at the time of a dispute.  Clearly in the latter case the deck is firmly stacked in EVN’s favour.


One step forward… wait and see


The MoIT is well aware of the deficiencies in the PPA and knows that, in its current form, it will not attract the kind of investment Vietnam needs if it is to meet both its energy demands and renewable targets. They know that investors were hoping for some of the shortfalls to have been addressed, and as such the agreement remains – for all intents and purposes – largely unbankable.


On the other hand however, the MoIT is also acutely aware of the significant interest in Vietnam’s solar sector. The vast potential of solar power is there for the taking, with abundant land available for the development of solar farms for first movers. With this in mind, the PPA can be considered an attempt to test the waters – asking how much risk investors are willing to bear in return for a piece of the action.


The MoIT is confident that smaller, nimble players will be attracted to Vietnam and make investments, regardless of the bankability of the PPA on paper. The question truly posed by Circular 16 is: exactly how much risk are investors willing to accept?  What better way to test it than in open market conditions?  If risk allocation adjustment need to be made in future, the Prime Minister, MoIT and EVN can make them relatively easily.


Ultimately, although the PPA is “final” on paper, the real trick is for investors to work hard and smart to agree adjustments on a project-to-project basis that re-align specific risks in acceptable ways.  Each project is a sum of many different elements and successful investors in the early days at least will be the ones that focus their energies on key issues for their projects where they can make meaningful progress.  Opportunity vs. risk: Vietnam is playing a calculated game at the dawn of the solar energy sector.  Where the chips fall remains to be seen.


For more information about Vietnam’s energy sector, please contact Giles at GTCooper@duanemorris.com or any of the lawyers in our office listing. Giles is co-General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC and branch director of Duane Morris’ HCMC office.

Vietnam’s proposed wind power price hike – is it enough?

One of the main criticisms levelled at Vietnam’s wind power sector is the relatively low feed-in tariff (FiT) introduced by the government in 2011. With the country’s rapid growth, energy demand is expected to soar over the coming years. Coupled with international pressure to keep to its greenhouse gas commitments, Vietnam is in desperate need of large-scale and long-term investment in its renewable energy sector.


The buying price of VND1,614/kWh (US$0.078) was set for all land-based projects in the country, with 6.8 cents paid by State-run power monopoly Vietnam Electricity (EVN), and the rest coming from the country’s Environment Protection Fund.


However, the rate, intended to encourage the development of wind power projects, was considered insufficient for investors to recover their investment capital. The tariff is also much lower than in neighbouring Indonesia (US$0.11), Malaysia (US$0.1476) and Thailand (US$0.19).


Change of direction


Vietnam’s Ministry of Industry and Trade (MoIT) has recently proposed an adjustment to the rate, asking the government to raise the buying price for wind power in an effort to help investors cover high input costs. It is hoped that such a move would push foreign firms to develop new wind power projects or expand their existing farms. Accelerated development in this sector is vital if Vietnam is to meet the energy targets it has set for itself, as well as wean the country off dirty and expensive imports of coal.


The ministry has suggested the price be lifted to US$0.087 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for wind energy projects on land and US$0.0995 cents per kWh for offshore farms. Such a rate would still lag behind regional competitors and the global average of US$0.196 per kWh as reported by the World Energy Commission, but may present a more feasible option to investors.


On top of the off-putting FiT, the number of wind power projects in Vietnam remains low as only wind turbine towers, accounting for 20 percent of production costs, can be produced locally, while investors have to import the remaining components.


Not winding down yet


There’s little doubt about the country’s potential for wind exploitation ­– according to a World Bank report, 8.6 percent of Vietnam’s land mass is suitable for the construction of wind farms, which would produce sufficient electricity to meet a lot of current and future power needs.


Some of the country’s currently operating wind farms, specifically in the province of Binh Thuan, work with the previously promulgated FiT of US$0.078 per kWh, and the Bac Lieu wind farm enjoys US$0.098 per kWh due to its offshore location.


The MoIT has highlighted these projects as part of the reasoning behind the rate hike. Concerns have been raised by the investors behind the projects over the time it would take to recover their investment capital. In fact, the investors in question had previously requested authorities raise the regulated FiT to $0.095 per kWh, but were unsuccessful.


According to the investor of the Phu Lac wind farm, the first phase of the project, which came into operation in November 2016, has total investment capital of VND1.1 trillion (US$48.4 million). With the existing FiT, it would take around 14 years to recover the investment of just the first phase. Considering the average lifespan of a wind farm is just 20 to 25 years, it’s no wonder that developers are hesitant about breaking ground on new projects.


As of now, there are 48 registered wind power projects with total capacity of 5,000MW in Vietnam, 23 of which have had their pre-feasibility reports approved by the MoIT and are patiently waiting for an increase in the FiT. It remains to be seen whether the suggested increase is enough for the projects to move ahead.


Incremental improvement


The proposal by the MoIT demonstrates an acceptance that despite a range of tax benefits offered to foreign investors including exemptions from customs duties, a preferential corporate tax rate of 10% and income tax and land use fee exemptions, the government’s initial energy strategy proved unappealing to investors. To offset any complaints, the trade ministry has calculated that the price adjustment they are proposing would raise EVN’s production costs by a slight VND0.08 per kWh this year and VND0.23 per kWh in 2019.


Even a light increase in the FiT, as put forward by the MoIT, could stoke some growth in the sector. The attraction of foreign investors capable of producing complicated parts could mean that the localisation ratio is bumped to more than 40 percent. For example, China has reached a localisation ratio of almost 100 percent for their wind power projects, but the selling price of the energy stands at around US$0.08 per kWh.


In summary, the proposed hike seems insufficient to really improve Vietnam’s position as a renewable energy leader in Southeast Asia. The sector remains riddled with problems of transparency and the perpetual presence of giants like EVN is an obstacle for smaller private players looking to enter the market. A meagre FiT does little to neutralise the risks faced by investors and power producers, especially with more promising offers in the region. The silver lining, however, is that authorities are open to change. The MoIT is echoing the concerns of the renewable energy sector, from both established and potential projects, and looking at ways to develop a more favourable climate going forward. Even if they’re not yet blown away by the increase, investors would do well to watch this space.


For more information about Vietnam’s energy sector, please contact Giles at GTCooper@duanemorris.com or any of the lawyers in our office listing. Giles is co-General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC and branch director of Duane Morris’ HCMC office.

Hope and hesitation at M&A forum

Discussion at this year’s Vietnam M&A Forum, which took place earlier this month in Ho Chi Minh City, revolved around the challenges facing Vietnam’s M&A market and the need for a big push to maintain the momentum of previous years.


As of this month, deals have fallen short of the record levels in 2016, and surpassing the US$5.8 billion total looks like a tall order. Although impressive, last year’s figure represented just 5% of Southeast Asia’s total M&A activity, with Singapore alone claiming over 50%. Additionally, 64% of the deals in Vietnam were valued at less than US$20 million. While 77% of the deals were domestic, Thai firms were the biggest foreign buyers in terms of value, enacting aggressive takeovers of major Vietnamese firms in retail and consumer goods. In terms of quantity most deals came from Singapore and Japan.


With advantages of proximity in terms of geography, culture, and climate, Thai firms have sought to penetrate the growing Vietnamese market quickly. Alongside other neighbouring nations who have struggled as their home markets mature, they have increasingly sought high-growth or low-production-cost economies for expansion elsewhere.


There is a lot to celebrate, but the total value of M&A activity reached just US$1.1 billion in the first quarter of 2017, a drop of 24.4 percent year-on-year. A slowdown in the State’s equitisation process is partially to blame for the drop, and many of the speakers at the M&A Forum expressed the need for a big push in the second half of the year.


Trains, planes and automobiles


To continue the high rate of economic growth achieved over the past few years, the Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPI) concluded that Vietnam is in dire need of M&A investment in the infrastructure sector. Deals need to come in thick and fast across many branches of the economy, with roads, railways, airports and seaports needing upgrades to meet international standards, in addition to the continued expansion of the country’s real estate and retail conglomerates.


As well as the increased divestments of State-owned enterprises, Vietnam’s administrative policy framework will need to be improved to attract and accommodate foreign investors.


Banking on big deals


Besides recent prime ministerial decisions regarding the SOE equitisation process, the government has made a priority of dealing with non-performing loans. This in particular could mean big news for M&A activity in the banking sector.


A resolution was recently adopted by the country’s National Assembly, with the State Bank of Vietnam (SBV) aiming to reduce the ratio of non-performing loans (NPLs) to below 3 percent by 2020. As part of the resolution, credit institutions, foreign entities and bad debt trading institutions will be able to buy and sell bad debts in an open and transparent way.


The move has had a positive impact on banking shares, and recent reports suggest that South Korea’s Shinhan Bank is poised to acquire a financial institution in Vietnam, following its takeover of ANZ Vietnam’s retail business. Two Japanese investors are also negotiating the purchase of stakes in two different Vietnamese financial institutions.


Moves like these show that foreign firms appreciate the potential of Vietnamese consumer finance, especially with attempts to unburden the system of its bad debt. StoxPlus, a leading financial and business information corporation in Vietnam, valued the market in 2016 at US$26.55 billion, with an annual growth rate of 30-40%.


Japan’s interest is good news for Vietnam’s budding financial sector, which could do with an injection of experience from more established players.


So, there is reason to be optimistic. However, participants at the M&A Forum stressed that foreign-ownership limits and the lack of clear regulations in areas attractive to big investors are still obstacles to fulfilling the country’s potential.


Dearth of details


Foreign investors often bring up the subject of transparency, which remains a big issue. The opaque investment environment can complicate negotiations in Vietnam, and this is particularly true when dealing with equitised state-owned enterprises. Investors are required to make substantial upfront commitments in terms of time and money at the early stages of the bidding process, shouldering significant risks to enter the market.


Used to dealing with more sophisticated operations, the financial statements of Vietnamese companies can also fall short of investors’ expectations. There is certainly a need for advisors and consultants, who can help with valuations and due diligence, offsetting some of the risk involved.


Until Vietnamese firms grow large enough to regularly participate in substantial cross-border M&A deals, foreign partners will need to make sufficient preparations when it comes to tax and legal requirements. Over time, Vietnamese companies will become more aware of the requirements set forward by investors in M&A transactions, which will generate more deal flow as well as shorten the transaction process.


Cause for cautious optimism


These complaints aside, the overall impression at the M&A Forum was positive, with some predicting that M&A activities in Vietnam would double or triple over the next five to ten years. With some adjustments it’s certainly possible to surpass 2016’s deal value in the short term, especially if the growth of the consumer retail sector continues to attract the attention of Korean investors. Raising the foreign-ownership limits in Vietnamese banks could also prove to be a tipping point for some big transactions.


To maintain momentum over the long term, however, more significant adjustments will be needed. The issues of equitising SOEs, state divestment and the foreign ownership cap will become more urgent as time goes on. The government will need to respond to suggestions and support legal reforms if the country is to attract more M&A capital. Crucially, the efficiency and transparency of the M&A market will need to be improved for foreign investors. Policymakers have promised that further legal reforms are underway and the government is pushing forward with state divestment. Let’s hope they keep to their commitments.


For more information about M&A in Vietnam, please contact Giles at GTCooper@duanemorris.com or any of the lawyers in our office listing. Giles is co-General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC and branch director of Duane Morris’ HCMC office.

Risk and reward in Vietnam’s real estate as investors ignore uncertainty over future of land rights

Vietnam has emerged as an attractive destination for foreign investors looking to enter the real estate market. Driven by a fast-growing economy, high rate of urbanisation and expanding middle-class, cities like Hanoi, Da Nang and Ho Chi Minh City have become dynamic and lucrative metropolises. For those willing to shoulder the risks, the market offers substantial rewards and great potential over the coming decades.


Much of the development can be attributed to the implementation of the Land Law (No. 45/2013/QH13), Law on Housing (No. 65/2014/QH13) and Law on Real Estate Business (No. 66/2014/QH13), which effectively opened the floodgates to foreign investment in real estate.  In principle, these laws allow foreigners most of the same rights as locals when it comes to purchasing and owning real estate.  Many foreign development companies are jumping at the chance to develop new residential and commercial properties in one of the world’s fastest growing economies.  Question marks remain however over the underlying rights foreign-invested developers enjoy in the land on which these buildings sit and it remains to be seen how this will play out.


Lack of Certainty 


For many developers the country’s political landscape remains a hurdle. In Vietnam, land is collectively owned by the people, and administered by the State on their behalf. Under this system, property owners are denied full and legal ownership over the land. Their rights to the land are limited to ‘land use rights’ within the scope permitted by law.  A land user is issued a land use right certificate (LURC) that recognises the land user’s rights over the property.  There are different types of land use rights possible and some come very close to being analogous to freehold ownership as many would know it in the West (use right in perpetuity, subject to reversion and compulsory public works acqusitions, right to sell, transfer, mortgage etc).

Continue reading Risk and reward in Vietnam’s real estate as investors ignore uncertainty over future of land rights

Plenty of life in Vietnam’s M&A market despite bumps

Globally, 2017 has been an unpredictable year for the mergers and acquisitions (M&A) market, with the hangover of political and economic instability from 2016 inspiring caution among investors.


Foreign investment has been put on the back foot due to rising protectionism and the failure of promising free trade deals like the TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership). Vietnam in particular has suffered and will need some big breakthroughs to regain lost momentum.


Although the TPP would have brought some big benefits to Vietnam, it is expected that other trade deals on the horizon will make up most of the shortfall. The nation has joined six regional FTAs as an ASEAN member, including the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) and the five FTAs between ASEAN and China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand, as well as four bilateral FTAs with Chile, Japan, South Korea and the Eurasia Economic Union (EAEU). Negotiations over an FTA with the European Union (EU) have also been concluded.

 Sluggish start


Whereas 2016 was an exciting year for M&A in Vietnam, 2017 has gotten off to a slower start. According to a report released in advance of the M&A Forum (August 10, HCMC), deals in Vietnam hit an all-time record of US$5.8 billion in 2016, a growth of 11.92 percent compared to 2015. However, the market has slumped since the latter half of last year with fewer headline signings. The total value of M&A activity reached just US$1.1 billion in the first quarter, a drop of 24.4 percent year-on-year.

Continue reading Plenty of life in Vietnam’s M&A market despite bumps

Investment Registration in Vietnam – Are we ready for the EU – Vietnam Free Trade Agreement?

The EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EVFTA) is expected to be ratified by all member countries by 2018 and take effect from 2019. It will create more opportunities and have a massive impact on the Vietnamese economy. In order to ensure full compliance with the EVFTA provisions, Vietnam’s legal system faces certain challenges. To shape the future and prepare for the fourth industrial revolution, it is vital for Vietnam to make reforms. This will prepare the way for transformation and to fully grasp the new opportunities that are coming their way.

What has been done?

Regarding the mechanism in dealing with the licensing process for a foreign invested company, different Chambers of Commerce in Vietnam have recognized significant improvement in the implementation of business and investment regulations since the effectiveness of the Enterprise Law No 68/2014/QH13 (Enterprise Law) and the Investment Law No 67/2014/QH13 (Investment law) on 1 July 2015.

In general, the Enterprise Law and Investment Law guarantee the principle of freedom of business. The licensing authority also fully complies with the prescribed time limit for the issuance of an Investment Registration Certificate (IRC) and an Enterprise Registration Certificate (ERC). These improvements have indeed improved the business and investment environment.

New laws applied in an ambiguous way?

Although there have been significant improvement in the implementation of the Investment Law, Enterprise Law and their guiding documents, there remain concerns about inconsistencies between implementation and enforcement of the current laws in certain aspects. The new laws are still holding back potential foreign investment due to many uncertainties. For example the business registration process contains issues as below:

  • Overlapping investment approvals and documents. – The procedures for investment registration are overlapped in terms of formalities and documents which are time consuming. The Investment Law and Enterprise Law set a timeline for the licensing authorities to provide the IRC (15 working days) and the ERC (3 working days). However there are many cases where authorities miss such deadlines. In addition, Decree No. 23 requires a trading license for foreign invested enterprises doing trading activities but it is not certain when such license will be issued from the application date (could be from two to several months).
  • Time limit for capital contribution. – The time limit for capital contribution regulated by law is too short (90 days). This timeline is not feasible especially for projects whose total investment capital is of high value.
  • Procedure for purchase of shares by foreign investors .- According to Article 46.2 of Decree No. 118/2015, a foreign investor is only required to obtain an approval from the Ministry of Planning and Investment under limited circumstances listed by law (e.g., purchasing 51% or more shares in a local company). However, due to the lack of specific guidelines, many foreign investors have been required to obtain an approval whenever they acquire new shares, even in a company not operating in a conditional sector.
  • Payments for transfer of shares/stakes. – According Article 36.3 of the Enterprise Law, payments for transfer of shares and receipt of dividends of foreign investors must be made through their capital accounts opened at banks in Vietnam. Furthermore, the State Bank of Vietnam requires different regulations for foreign direct investment (FDI) and indirect investment (FII). For instance, FDI payments are made to the project company’s direct capital account. Meanwhile, FII payments are made to the investor’s VND account. In fact, local banks have adopted different interpretations to these regulations, thus creating confusion for the investors.
  • Share Swaps. – The Enterprise Law does not provide for share swaps.

Calling to action

As analyzed above, the current system for an investment registration in some cases makes it difficult to enforce current laws. Accordingly, administrative reforms should be conducted to simplify procedures, namely:

Ø To require only 1 or 2 approvals for the investment registration. In doing so, electronic submission should be allowed and overlapping documents must be removed.

Ø To allow shareholders to decide the time limit for capital contribution, except for certain projects.

Ø To ensure that approval of share acquisition complies with the requirements listed by law only.

Ø The State Bank of Vietnam should provide a guidance on transfer of payments among banks.

Ø To adopt provisions relating to share swaps.


The EU-Vietnam economic relationship is a mutual cooperation. The EVFTA is among tools to facilitate investment and trade between the parties. With the EVFTA, each party aims at guaranteeing non-discrimination treatment. However, if the current laws continue being enforced as they are now, it may trigger possible violations of that principle. In order to avoid this, it is vital not only to determine the incompatible regulations and institutions in the local legal framework but also to adopt appropriate solutions. For example, the Government should enhance information exchange among state agencies to prevent overlapping documents and time consuming process, and improve a single window and inter-agency regime. The Government should also ensure that licensing authorities operate more efficiently according to the regulation.


Please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above. Dr. Oliver Massmann is General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you!




Solar deals despite doubts: bankable or not, investors dive in

Foreign interest in Vietnam’s solar sector had surged after the Ministry of Industry and Trade (MoIT) announced a solar feed-in tariff (FiT) and a draft solar PPA earlier this year.  Concerns over the bankability of the proposed agreement have done little to dampen enthusiasm, with a number of players eager to get a slice of a Southeast Asian success story.

Continue reading Solar deals despite doubts: bankable or not, investors dive in

Smart cities: intelligent infrastructure for Vietnam’s grid

If not already mesmerised by the traffic, visitors to Vietnam’s large cities often comment on the mass of cables that hang like jungle vines across the streets.


Along with the ubiquitous motorcycle, the sight of electrical poles that look more like birds’ nests is emblematic of modern-day Vietnam. It is also a clear sign that the country’s power infrastructure has some serious catching up to do.


As mentioned in last week’s post, Vietnam has achieved significant growth over the last couple of decades. Reforms have paved the way for international trade and investment, as well as rising incomes for Vietnamese citizens. The face of cities like Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City are changing rapidly, with shiny new developments cropping up as far as the eye can see. Many areas are unrecognisable compared to just ten or twenty years ago. Power needs are marching in lockstep with growth. Electricity of Vietnam (EVN) is the country’s largest power company, and as of 2015 had a transmission network of some 21,883 kilometres.

Continue reading Smart cities: intelligent infrastructure for Vietnam’s grid

The sun rises on Vietnam’s energy sector

Over the past three decades Vietnam has witnessed startling economic success thanks to the country’s openness to international trade and investment. The energy sector in particular has grown rapidly, with abundant hydrocarbons and hydropower resources allowing the country to keep pace with the energy demands of a rising population.


However, there may be clouds on the horizon. The most easily-accessible resources are running out and imports of coal and gas will be increasingly needed to keep industry chugging along. To maintain its high rate of growth Vietnam will be looking for huge investment over the coming years. In order to do this, and keep to its international greenhouse gas commitments, the government has set its sights on some ambitious targets for solar power generation.


Recent decisions issued by the government represent baby steps in this direction. Evidently, there is some enthusiasm for a solar-powered future, but is it enough?

Continue reading The sun rises on Vietnam’s energy sector

VIETNAM – GUIDE to Anti-Money Laundering

Member of Financial Action Task Force (FATF)?

No, Vietnam is currently not a member of FATF.

On FATF Blacklist?


Member of Egmont?


  • ML background in region
    • Overview of country risks

Vietnam’s deeper integration into regional and world’s economy for the past few years has been a great opportunity for international money laundering crimes. However, money laundering activities only become clearly visible recently though bank accounts opening, securities trading, gambling, illegal transfer of foreign currencies out of the country, use of credit cards, etc. Combating money laundering becomes one of the top concerns not only for the State Bank of Vietnam but also other relevant authorities in Vietnam. According to a report of the State Bank of Vietnam, in 2012, suspicious transactions have a total value of VND51,000 billion, while in 2013 is VND79,000 billion and in 2014, the value goes up to VND119,000 billion. This shows an increasing and alarming number of transactions suspicious of money laundering. We note that the Law on Anti-money Laundering took effect on 01 January 2013. However, it seems that the anti-money laundering legal framework is still not sufficient, guiding implementation remains unclear, awareness of credit institutions of money laundering is low, ability to detect money laundering activities is weak, information technology in anti-money laundering activities is not sufficient, and especially punishment regime for violating acts of the AML is only formalistic. The Government, especially the State Bank of Vietnam is strongly recommended to tighten their regulations in this sector.

  • Key Directives / Legislative framework
  1. Law on Prevention of and Anti Money Laundering No. 07/2012/QH13, issued by the National Assembly on 18 June 2012 (“AML”);
  2. Decree No. 116/2013/ND-CP on detailing the implementation of certain provisions of the AML (“Decree 116”);
  3. Circular No. 35/2013/TT-NHNN on guiding the implementation of certain regulations on anti- money laundering, issued by the State Bank of Vietnam on 31 December 2013 and amended by Circular No. 31/2014/TT-NHNN; and
  4. Penal Code No. 15/1999/QH10 issued by the National Assembly on 21 December 1999, as amended by Law No. 37/2009/QH12.
  • Who are the regulators / monitoring authorities
    • Who are affected / reporting entities?

According to the AML, the following state authorities are responsible for reporting, preventing, and fighting against money laundering activities:

  • SBV is mainly responsible to the Government for state administering the implementation of AML regulations;
  • Ministry of Public Security is responsible for collecting, receiving and investigating information of money laundering related crimes;
  • Ministry of Finance is responsible for implementing AML measures in insurance business, securities sector, prize-winning games and casinos;
  • Ministry of Construction is responsible for implementing AML measures in real estate business sector;
  • Ministry of Justice is responsible for implementing AML measures applicable to lawyers, legal practice organizations, notaries and notary public offices;
  • The People’s Procuracy and the People’s Court coordinate with other agencies in the investigation, prosecution, and resolution of money laundering crimes;
  • People’s Committees at all levels are responsible for conducting legal training on anti-money laundering in the province, co-ordinating with state authorities to implement policies, strategies, and plans to prevent and fight money laundering; and
  • The Anti-Money Laundering Steering Committee is responsible for assisting the Prime Minister in preparing strategy, plans, policies and programs in the process of preventing and fighting against money laundering.
  • Legal requirements for KYC
    • Customer Due diligence

According to the AML, in which cases application of measures to identify clients are required depend on the types of entities and which business activities they are conducting. In particular:

–          For financial institutions:

ü  The clients open accounts or set up transactions with the financial institutions for the first time;

ü  The clients who make infrequent transactions of high value or carry out the transaction of electronic money transfer but lack the information about the name, address, account number of the originator;

ü  There are doubts about transaction or the parties concerned in transactions are related to the money laundering;

ü  There are doubts about the accuracy or completeness of the clients identification information previously collected.

–          For relevant non-financial institutions or individuals:

ü  Doing business in prize-winning games, casinos: clients implementing high value transactions (i.e.¸ over VND60 million per day);

ü  Doing real estate management services, brokerage; real estate transaction floor: when providing these services to the buyer, purchaser and asset owner;

ü  Trading in precious metals and stones: when clients performing the sale and purchase transaction of precious metals and stones with value of over VND300 million per day;

ü  Providing notary and accounting services, the lawyer’s legal service and lawyer practice organizations: when preparing the conditions for conducting the transactions to transfer the land use right, house ownership, management of money and securities or other assets of the clients; managing the clients’ accounts at banks, securities companies; administrating and managing the operation of the clients’ companies, and participating in the activities of purchase and sale of business organizations on behalf of clients;

ü  Providing investment trust services: due diligence for the entrusting party;

ü  Providing services of establishment, management and executive of enterprise; supplying registration office, address or place of business; supplying services of company representative : clients requesting such services;

ü  Providing services of director and secretary provision of the enterprise to a third party: third party and director / secretary to such director;

ü  Providing services of representative supply for shareholders: shareholders and representatives of such shareholder.

The abovementioned services providers/ entities must update the client identification information on a regular basis during the period of having relations with the clients.

In addition, clients must also be classified into different groups, product and services used, their place of residence or headquarter based on different risk exposure levels.

  • Reporting requirements / Obligations
    • Record keeping

Records of clients’ transactions must be kept for at least 5 years from the date of the transaction. Records of customer identification, accounting documents and reports of high value transactions, suspicious transactions and transactions of electronic money transfer exceeding VND500 million or equivalent amount in foreign currency (for domestic transfer) or USD1,000 (for inbound or outbound transfer), must be kept for at least 5 years from the closing date of the transaction or the date of account closure or the reporting date.

    • Tipping off

The reporting entity/ individual is not allowed to inform a person involved in a suspicious transaction that it has reported or will report the transaction to the State Bank of Vietnam.

    • Whistleblowing

The AML only sets out regulations on reporting to the State Bank of Vietnam instead of whistle blowing.

  • Offences
    • Enforcements

If the parties related to the transactions are included in the blacklist or there are grounds to believe that the transaction required to be performed is related to the criminal activities, the reporting entity/ individual must apply measures to delay the transaction within maximum 3 working days and must immediately report in writing and notify via phone to the competent State agencies and the SBV for cooperation. If the reporting entity/ individual does not receive any feedback from the competent State agencies after 3 working days, it can proceed the transaction.

In addition, the reporting entity/ individual must block the accounts or seal or temporarily seize assets of the individuals/ organizations upon having decision of competent state agencies under the law and make report on the implementation to the State Bank of Vietnam.

    • Penalties

Persons violating the AML are subject to administrative sanctions of up to VND250 million, discipline or criminal penalty depending on the nature and seriousness of such violations. The criminal sanctions varies from one year to maximum 15 year imprisonment, together with partly or wholly confiscation of assets, monetary fine of up to 3 times of the violated amount, abandonment of holding certain positions or titles from one to five years.

  • Internal procedures & training

Pursuant to Article 20 of the AML, reporting entities/ individuals must establish internal procedures on prevention and combating money laundering with the following contents:

ü  Client acceptance policy;

ü  Processes and procedures to identify clients, verify and update client information;

ü  Transactions which must be reported;

ü  The process of review, detection, handling and reporting of suspicious transactions; the way to communicate with the clients who make suspicious transaction;

ü  Information keeping and security;

ü  Applying temporary measures and principles of handling the cases of transaction delay;

ü  Reporting and information supply regime to the State Bank of Vietnam and the competent state agencies;

ü  Professional training on the prevention of and combating money laundering;

ü  Internally controlling and auditing the compliance with the policies, regulations, processes and procedures related to the prevention of and combating money laundering, responsibilities of each individual and division in the implementation of internal rules in the prevention of and combating money laundering.

  • Sanctions
    • International conventions

International cooperation in the field of prevention of and combating money laundering includes: (i) exchange of information on prevention of and combating money laundering; (ii) determining and blocking assets of the violating persons; (iii) performing judicial assistance and cooperation in extraditing money laundering offences; and (iv) other aspects. The process, procedures and cooperation methods are in accordance with international agreements to which Vietnam is a party.

  • CTF – Countering terrorist finance

The Ministry of Public Security is tasked with the preparation of a list of organizations and individuals related to terrorism and terrorist finance (“Blacklist”). The reporting entity/ individual must promptly report to the competent anti-terrorism authorities, and at the same time send reports to the State Bank of Vietnam upon detecting organizations and individuals to conduct transactions included in the blacklist or when there is evidence that other organizations and individuals commit acts related to the money laundering crime for terrorism financing.

At the same time, the reporting entity/ individual must apply measures to delay the transaction and block the accounts or seal or temporarily seize assets of the individuals/ organizations.

  • Anti bribery and corruption laws

Corruption is widespread throughout Vietnam. For information, Vietnam ranks 111 out of 168 according to 2015 Corruption Perception Index, a barely budge compared with its rank in 2014 (119th) and in 2013 (116th). Sectors most affected by corruption are Police; Public administration; Health sector, Judiciary; and Land management. Vietnamese government has acknowledged the negative impact of corruption on both Vietnam’s future prosperity and the Party’s own legitimacy, thus has adopted one of the most comprehensive and ambitious anti-corruption laws in Asia. The anti-corruption legal framework has significantly improved after the adoption of the Anti-corruption Law by the National Assembly in 2005 and the National Strategy on Anti-corruption to 2020.

However, in the last ten years of implementation, considering the increasing level of complexity of corruption cases, the current legal framework has been proved to be inadequate to combat corruption in Vietnam. This prompted the Vietnamese Government to refine the current regime to make the policies fully effective and operational in practice.

Draft Law provides a new chapter on Assets and Income Transparency and Control.  Deputies to the National Assembly and People’s Councils, officials holding positions as from deputy head of division in People’s Committee of districts, Secretary, Deputy Secretary, Chairman, Deputy Chairman of People’s Committee, people who work in public companies, credit institutions, etc. must enumerate their assets and incomes. In case their actual assets and incomes are bigger than ones enumerated, the competent authorities shall request tax authority to collect taxes applied on the discrepancy between actual assets and incomes and the ones enumerated; initiate a law suit before courts.

A new section of “Anti-corruption at social organizations” is added.  Chairman, General Secretary, Chief Accountant of a social organization must enumerate their assets and incomes.

Draft Law also provides a new chapter on “Forming a healthy and anti-corruption business culture.” Specifically, enterprises are liable to issue and implement a code of ethics internally in order to form a healthy and anti-corruption business culture.  In its charter and operation policy, the enterprise is responsible to provide its internal control mechanism to prevent conflict of interests, bribery, abuse of powers and other corruption acts. Chairman of Board of Directors, members of Board of Directors, General Director, Directors, Head of Inspection Committee, Chief Accountant of a public company, credit institution, investment fund must enumerate their assets and incomes.  Enterprises are liable to issue their policy on control of their management staff’s assets and incomes control.

There is no definition of “bribery” under Vietnam laws. However, in essence, it could be defined as an act of offering, promising, making or receiving money or anything of value (minimum threshold:  VND 2 million (approx. US$ 100) to induce or influence an act/ omission or decision. The current laws only target people with positions and power (i.e., state officials). Please note the receipt of minimum VND2 billion is subject to death penalty.

  • Forthcoming issues/legislation

o   Money transmitters

Money transfer transactions with nature mentioned under Customer Due Diligence and Record Keeping sections are subjects of the AML. The laws regarding these issue remain in force and there is no information that these rules will be revised in the short term.

If you have any question on the above, please do not hesitate to contact Mr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com, Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you very much!