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VIETNAM INSURANCE GUIDE

Market overview

Global

  • Member of International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) ?

Yes, Vietnam became member of IAIS in 2007.

  • Global regulators, bodies and legislation applicable to country

A project “ComFrame” set up by the Internationally Active Insurance Groups (IAIG related to IAIS), is planned to establish regulatory framework with mandatory standards. For now, it remains at the test phase but would become effective by 2019. Vietnam, as a member of the IAIS will have to comply with its regulations.

As a member of the WTO and WHO, Vietnam must also comply with regulations of these organizations with respect to insurance. In its bilateral / multilateral agreements such as Korea – Vietnam FTA, EU- Vietnam FTA, Hong Kong –  ASEAN FTA, ASEAN- China FTA, ASEAN – Australia – New Zealand FTA, commitments on insurance are also binding on Vietnam

In addition, Vietnam is a member of the OECD, which issues guidelines and good practices of non-binding nature for member countries.

European (if applicable) Not applicable for Vietnam

  • Supervised by EIOPA?
  • Does Solvency II apply?
  • Key regulators and rulebooks

Domestic

  • Key regulators

The Ministry of Finance is in charge of the state regulation on insurance business. In addition, on 12 February 2009, the Ministry of Finance (MOF) issued Decision No. 288/QD-TTg to establish the Insurance Supervisory Authority (ISA) under the MOF. The ISA will assist the Minister of the MOF to regulate insurance business nationwide; directly govern and supervise insurance business activities and services related to insurance business in accordance with law.

In June 2009,  Insurance Research and Training Centre (IRTC) under the ISA was established according to Decision No.  1379/QD-BTC . The IRTC is tasked with organizing scientific study and training on insurance and insurance market.

  • Laws and relevant court decisions/judgements

The following laws and regulations mainly govern insurance business in Vietnam:

  1. Law on Insurance Business issued by the National Assembly on 09 December 2000, as amended by Law No. 61/2010/QH12 dated 24 November 2010 (Law on Insurance Business);
  2. Decree No. 73/2016/ND-CP on guiding the implementation of the Law on Insurance Business issued by the Government on 01 July 2016 (Decree 73);
  3. Decree No. 98/2013/ND-CP on administrative sanctions on insurance business and lottery business issued by the Government on 28 August 2013 (Decree 98);
  4. Circular No. 195/2014/TT-BTC on guiding the assessment and classification of insurance companies issued by the Ministry of Finance on 17 December 2014 (Circular 195);
  5. Circular No. 101/2013/TT-BTC on guiding the management and use of fund for policy-holders, issued by the Ministry of Finance on 30 July 2013 (Circular 101);
  6. Decision No. 1826/QD-TTg of the Prime Minister on approving the Plan on “Restructuring the securities market and insurance companies” on 28 December 2012 (Decision 1826).
  • Key rules and requirements may include
  • Senior management responsibilities
  1. Promulgation of legal instruments and implementing guidelines on insurance business; formulation of strategies, policies, master planning and specific plans for the development of the Vietnamese insurance market;
  2. Issuance and withdrawal of licenses for establishment and operation insurers and insurance brokers, and of licenses for establishment of representative offices of foreign insurers and foreign insurance brokers in Vietnam;
  3. Promulgation, ratification and guiding the implementation of insurance regulations, provisions, scales of premiums and commissions;
  4. Supervision of insurance business activities via professional activities, financial status, enterprise management, risk management and compliance with the law on insurers and brokers; application of necessary measures to ensure that insurers satisfy the financial requirements and fulfil their undertakings to purchasers of insurance;
  5. Organization of provision of information on the status of the insurance market and market forecasts;
  6. International cooperation in the area of insurance;
  7. Consent for overseas operations of insurers and insurance brokers;
  8. Administration of the operations of representative offices of foreign insurers and foreign insurance brokers in Vietnam;
  9. Organization of the formation and training of a workforce of insurance management personnel and insurance professional experts; and
  10. Inspection and checks of insurance business activities; resolution of complaints and denunciations, and dealing with breaches of the laws on insurance business.
  • Whistle-blowing rules

There is no such rules specifically for the insurance sector.

  • Foreign ownership limit in an existing shareholding company

ü  The maximum shareholding by an individual shareholder is limited to 10% of the charter capital of the target company;

ü  The maximum shareholding by an institutional shareholder is limited to 20% of the charter capital of the target company; and

ü  The maximum shareholding owned by a shareholder and related persons/affiliates in aggregate is limited to 20% of the charter capital of the target company.

Capital reserve requirements

Reserve funds

Insurers and insurance brokers must establish a compulsory fund to supplement their charter capital and ensure their solvency. Appropriations for the compulsory reserve fund shall be made annually at 5% of after-tax profits. The maximum amount of compulsory reserve fund is equivalent to 10% of the charter capital of the insurance enterprise or issued capital of the foreign branch.

In addition to this compulsory reserve fund, insurers and insurer brokers may establish other reserve funds from their after-tax profits of the fiscal year as determined in their charter. It is noted that after-tax profits must not be first shared among shareholders but only after 5% of such profits is contributed to the compulsory reserve fund.

Insurance reserves

Insurance reserve means an amount of money which an insurer must set aside to pay for its insurance liabilities determined in advance and arising from the insurance contracts which it has entered into.

Insurance reserve must be established for each type of insurance product or insurance contract with respect to that part of liability retained by the insurer or foreign branch. Specific amount contributed for insurance reserve is not yet provided by the MOF given the recent effectiveness of Decree 73.

Security deposit

Insurers must pay a security deposit into a commercial bank operating in Vietnam in an amount of  2% of the legal capital as specified for each type of insurance company (for example, a health insurance company must pay a security deposit of  VND6 billion or USD270,000) within 60 days from the issuance date of the operating license in Vietnam. An insurance enterprise or foreign branch may only use its security deposit to meet undertakings to purchasers of insurance when its solvency is inadequate and upon written approval of the MOF. The whole amount of their security deposit can only be withdrawn upon termination of their operation.

Product specific legislation

Relevant advisory documentation or other requirements, including tax.

  • Life

Legal capital

ü  For life insurance business (excluding unit linked insurance and retirement insurance) and health care insurance business: VND600 billion

ü  Life insurance business and unit linked insurance business or retirement insurance business: VND800 billion

ü  Life insurance business, unit linked insurance business and retirement insurance business: VND1,000 billion.

Qualifications of the appointed actuary

ü    Not be prohibited from managing an enterprise according to Vietnam laws;

ü    In the three consecutive years prior to the time of appointment:

o   Not have been subject to an administrative penalty for a breach in the insurance business sector with the form of penalty being compulsory dismissal from his or her position as a manager or executive, approved by the MOF, or with the form of penalty being suspension from a position to which such person was appointed by an insurance enterprise, insurance broker or foreign branch;

o   Not have been disciplined in the form of dismissal for a breach of internal rules on underwriting, assessment, compensation and indemnity, internal control, management of finance and investment or management of a re-insurance program in an insurance enterprise or foreign branch; or for a breach of the rules on professional insurance broking operations, on internal control or professional ethics of an insurance broker;

o   At the time of being appointed as a manager or executive of an insurance enterprise or foreign branch, not be directly related to any case prosecuted by a competent agency.

ü Have undergone training as an appointed actuary, and have at least 10 years’ work experience as an appointed actuary in the life insurance and be a fellow of one of the Associations of Actuaries which are widely recognized internationally such as the Institute of Actuaries of England; the Society of Actuaries of the USA; the Institute of Actuaries of Australia; the Canadian Institute of Actuaries; or be a member of another Association of Actuaries which is an official member of the International Associations of Actuaries; or have at least 5 years’ work experience as an appointed actuary in the life insurance or health insurance sector from the time of becoming a fellow of one of the above associations.

ü Not have committed any breach of the professional ethics of actuaries.

ü Be an employee of the life insurer.

ü Be resident in Vietnam during the term of office.

Permitted scope of business

Life insurers are not allowed to do non-life business.

Life insurance products must be approved by the MOF in advance.

Insurance reserve

Insurance reserve for life insurance companies includes: actuarial reserve, unearned premium reserve, compensation reserve, profit distribution reserve, committed interest rate reserve and balance reserve.

Investment of idle capital from insurance reserves

Investments of idle capital from insurance reserves of insurance enterprises or foreign branches may be made directly by the insurance enterprise or foreign branch or by entrusting another entity to make the investment, but shall only be invested in Vietnam in the following sectors:

ü Purchase of Government bonds, Treasury bills, Treasury bonds, public bonds for construction of the Homeland, local authority bonds and Government guaranteed bonds without any restriction;

ü Deposits with credit institutions without any restriction;

ü Purchase of shares, bonds of enterprises and fund certificates but not to exceed 50% of idle capital from insurance reserves;

ü Real estate business in accordance with the Law on Real Estate Business but not to exceed 20% of idle capital from insurance reserves;

ü Capital contribution to other enterprises but not to exceed 20% of idle capital from insurance reserves.

  • General insurance

Under Vietnam laws, general insurance is called non-life insurance, which means the types of insurance products being property insurance, civil liability insurance and other products which are not life insurance.

Legal capital

– For non-life insurance business (excluding aviation insurance business and satellite insurance business) and health insurance: VND300 billion

– For non-life insurance business (including aviation insurance business or satellite insurance business) and health insurance: VND350 billion

– For non-life insurance business, including aviation insurance business and satellite insurance business and health insurance: VND400 billion

Qualifications of an appointed actuary regarding reserves and solvency of non-life insurer

ü    Not be prohibited from managing an enterprise according to Vietnam laws;

ü    In the three consecutive years prior to the time of appointment:

o   Not have been subject to an administrative penalty for a breach in the insurance business sector with the form of penalty being compulsory dismissal from his or her position as a manager or executive, approved by the MOF, or with the form of penalty being suspension from a position to which such person was appointed by an insurance enterprise, insurance broker or foreign branch;

o   Not have been disciplined in the form of dismissal for a breach of internal rules on underwriting, assessment, compensation and indemnity, internal control, management of finance and investment or management of a re-insurance program in an insurance enterprise or foreign branch; or for a breach of the rules on professional insurance broking operations, on internal control or professional ethics of an insurance broker;

o   At the time of being appointed as a manager or executive of insurance enterprise or foreign branch, not be directly related to any case prosecuted by a competent agency.

ü Be an associate of an Association of Actuaries which is an official member of the International Associations of Actuaries; or

ü Have at least five years’ work experience in the non-life insurance sector and have evidence of passing two exams of one of the following Associations: the Institute of Actuaries of England; the Society of Actuaries of the USA; the Institute of Actuaries of Australia, and the Canadian Institute of Actuaries, or evidence of passing exams of a training course or program on actuaries recognized by the above Associations as equivalent to two exams of the above Associations; and

ü Not have committed any breach of the professional ethics of actuaries.

Permitted scope of business

Non-life insurance companies are allowed to do health insurance business.

Insurance reserve

Insurance reserve for non-life insurance companies includes unearned premium reserve, claim reserve, and large loss fluctuation reserve.

Investment of idle capital from insurance reserves

ü  Purchase of Government bonds, Treasury bills, Treasury bonds, public bonds for construction of the Homeland, local authority bonds and Government guaranteed bonds without any restriction;

ü  Deposits with credit institutions without any restriction;

ü  Purchase of shares, bonds of enterprises, fund certificates and capital contribution in other enterprises but not to exceed thirty five (35) per cent of idle capital from insurance reserves; and

ü  Real estate business in accordance with the Law on Real Estate Business but not to exceed ten (10) per cent of idle capital from insurance reserves.

  • Reinsurance

Legal capital

–          For non-life reinsurance business or both non-life reinsurance business and health reinsurance business: VND400 billion;

–          For life reinsurance business or both life reinsurance business and health reinsurance business: VND700 billion;

–          For business in all three types of life reinsurance, non-life reinsurance and health reinsurance, VND1,100 billion.

Qualifications of an appointed actuary regarding reserves and solvency of reinsurer

Same as in non-life insurance.

Permitted scope of business

ü  An insurance enterprise or may transfer part but is not permitted to assign all of the liability for which insurance has already been accepted in an insurance contract to one or a number of domestic and foreign insurance enterprises, and other foreign branches;

ü  The maximum level of the liability retained on each risk or on each separate loss shall not exceed 10% of equity.

ü  If an insurance enterprise cedes reinsurance as appointed by an insured person, the maximum rate for re-insurance by appointment shall be 90% of the liability insured;

ü  An insurance enterprise may accept reinsurance of the liability for which another insurance enterprise has already accepted insurance.

Insurance reserve

–          For non-life reinsurance: unearned premium reserve, claim reserve, and large loss fluctuation reserve;

–          For life reinsurance: actuarial reserve, unearned premium reserve, compensation reserve, profit distribution reserve, committed interest rate reserve and balance reserve;

–          For health reinsurance: actuarial reserve, unearned premium reserve, compensation reserve, and balance reserve.

Investment of idle capital from insurance reserves

–          For non-life reinsurance: same as non-life insurance

For life reinsurance and health reinsurance: same as life insurance and health insurance

  • Commercial insurance

Please refer to the Section on General insurance above.

Investment management and markets

Overview of relevant regulation affecting insurers’ investment portfolios, including Asset Liability Management (ALM).

An insurance enterprise can make investment from its equity, idle capital from insurance reserves and other lawful sources.

In addition to rules of domestic investment of idle capital from insurance reserves as mentioned above for each type of insurance business, the following principles apply:

ü  It is not permitted to borrow loans for purposes of direct investment or entrusted investment in securities, real estate, or capital contribution to other enterprises;

ü  It is not permitted to reinvest in any form [being lending to or reinvesting with] capital contributing shareholders (members) or related persons [affiliated persons] as defined in the Law on Enterprises, except for deposits with shareholders (or members) which are credit institutions;

ü  It is not permitted to invest more than 30% of its investment capital sources in companies within one Group or within one group of companies with a mutual ownership relationship (this provision shall not apply to deposits at credit institutions and offshore investment capital sources in the form of establishment of enterprises or branches overseas);

ü  In the case of investment entrustment, the organization accepting entrustment must be issued by the competent agency with a licence to carry out the activities of acceptance of investment entrustment in compliance with the contents of acceptance of investment entrustment.

An insurance enterprise may also make offshore investment but only to set up offshore insurance company or an offshore insurance branch. Such offshore investment must be approved by the MOF.

Enforcement and investigation

  • Rules of regulatory investigation

Insurance business activities must be checked without overlapping and no more than once in respect of one item in any one year with respect to enterprises (except for the case of an extraordinary or unscheduled check).

  • Complaints procedure

There is no specific rule on complaints handling procedure in insurance enterprises. Instead, such rules are as indicated in the insurance contracts and must follow relevant regulations of the Civil Code and economic agreements.

Complaints on administrative decisions will be handled according to laws on complaints and denunciations, which are applied for all sectors.

  • Redress, including Ombudsman service

Depending on the nature and seriousness of violations, the violators may be subject to administrative sanctions (warnings, monetary fines, suspension of operation, remedies) or criminal penalty. In case of causing damages, they must compensate according to Vietnam laws.

  • Insurance mediation compensation schemes

As indicated in the insurance contract. The insured person has maximum one year to claim for indemnity from the date of occurrence of the insured event. Upon occurrence of such insured event, the insurer must pay the indemnity with the time-limit stated in the insurance contract. If there is no statement in the contract, the time-limit is 15 days from the date of receipt of a complete and proper application requesting payment of indemnity.

Personal accident and health care insurance

–          Personal accident insurance: the insurer must pay insurance proceeds to the beneficiary up to the sum insured, based on the actual injury of the person insured and as agreed in the contract.

–          Health care insurance: the insurer must pay insurance proceeds to the beneficiary up to the sum insured, based on the costs of medical examination, treatment and convalescence of the insured person arising as a result of an illness or accident and as agreed in the contract.

Property insurance

–          Property insurance below value: the insurer is only responsible to indemnify in accordance with the ratio of the sum insured to the market value of the insured property at the date of entering the contract.

Double insurance contracts

Upon occurrence of the insured event, each insurer is only responsible to indemnify in accordance with the ratio of the agreed sum insured to the total sum insured under all insurance contracts which the purchaser of the insurance has entered into. The total sum of indemnity payable by all the insurers will not exceed the value of the actual property damage.

Insolvency and policy-holder protection

  • Relevant resolution regime?

There is no separate insolvency regime for insurers. Instead, the Law on Bankruptcy which deals with bankruptcy and insolvency in all sectors will apply.

The general procedure to handle bankruptcy cases is as follows:

ü  Filing the petition to the court to commence bankruptcy procedures (by creditors, employees, grass-root trade union, legal representative of the company, shareholders, Chairman of the Board of Management, etc.)

ü  The court will handle the bankruptcy case according to its competence within 6 working days from the receipt of the petition. Decisions to open bankruptcy procedure must be sent to all relevant parties and published on local newspapers and the People’s Supreme Court web portal.

ü  Calling for the meeting of creditors

ü  Depending on the Resolution of the Creditors’ meeting, the company’s operation can be recovered or the court is requested to announce the bankruptcy.

ü  Management and liquidation of assets are conducted by a liquidator or company that is appointed by the court and specializes in the management and liquidation of assets.

Data protection

There is no separate rule governing data protection in the insurance sector in Vietnam. Instead, Vietnam’s data protection laws are scattered in many legislations, which include the Civil Code, the Penal Code, the Law on Cyber Information Security, the Law on Information Technology, the Law on Telecommunications, the Law on Consumer Protection, the Law on E-Transactions and relevant Decrees guiding implementation of the mentioned laws. These laws include provisions to prevent, detect, stop and address spam, computer viruses and cyber-attacks, and protect information exchanged in cyberspace.

There is no consistent definition of “personal information” in Vietnam laws. General speaking, personal information could be any information that could be used to identify a specific person, including information on payment transactions.

Organisations processing personal information must take appropriate management and technical measures to protect personal information that they have collected and stored and ensure that the personal information is not lost, stolen, disclosed, modified or destroyed without consent.

Depending on the nature of violations of data protection policies, administrative fines (warning, monetary fine) and possible remedial measures or criminal penalties might apply.

Corporate governance

Managers and executives of insurance enterprises, foreign branches and insurance brokers are:

ü  Chairman of the board of management (chairman of the members’ council or company chairman); members of the board of management (members of the members’ council);

ü  Head of the inspection committee; head of the internal audit committee; inspectors (if the enterprise does not establish an inspection committee);

ü  General Director (Director); Deputy General Director (Deputy Director);

ü  Head of the internal control or audit division; chief accountant; branch directors; heads of representative offices; heads of professional sections; appointed actuaries (in the case of a life insurer or health insurer); appointed actuaries regarding reserves and solvency (in the case of a non-life insurer or foreign branch).

Allocation of these people must follow the below principles:

ü  A member of the board of management or members’ council of an insurance enterprise or insurance broker is not permitted to concurrently be a member of the board of management or members’ council of an enterprise operating in the same sector (non-life insurance, life insurance, reinsurance or insurance brokerage);

ü  The general director (director) or deputy general director (deputy director) of an insurance enterprise, foreign branch or insurance broker is not permitted to concurrently work for another insurance enterprise, foreign branch or insurance broker operating in the same sector in Vietnam; and the general director (director) of an insurance enterprise, foreign branch or insurance broker is not permitted to be a member of the board of management or members’ council of another insurance enterprise or insurance broker operating in the same sector in Vietnam;

ü  The general director (director), deputy general director (deputy director), a branch director or a head of a representative office of an insurance enterprise or insurance broker is only permitted to concurrently be the head of no more than one branch or representative office or professional section of the insurance enterprise or insurance broker. The director or deputy director of a foreign branch is only permitted to concurrently be the head of no more than one professional section of such branch;

ü  An appointed actuary of a life insurer or health insurer, an appointed actuary regarding reserves and solvency of a non-life insurer, of a reinsurer or of a foreign branch has the duty of organizing implementation of work to ensure the financial safety of the insurance enterprise or foreign branch. An appointed actuary or an appointed actuary regarding reserves and solvency has independent rights regarding his or her professional specialty and is not permitted to concurrently be the general director (director) or chief accountant.

Financial crime prevention

  • Member of FATF? On FATF blacklist?

Not a members of FATF and not blacklisted either.

***

If you have any question on the above, please do not hesitate to contact Mr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com, Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you very much!

 

 

 

PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR IN VIETNAM – OUTLOOK ON THE EUROPEAN UNION VIETNAM FREE TRADE AGREEMENT (EVFTA)

 

Vietnam has made great progress in the quality of the pharmaceutical and medical sector. By dedicating 5 – 6 % of Gross Domestic Product to healthcare expenses, Vietnam is among countries with the best outcomes in ASEAN. The adoption of Resolution 19/NQ-CP/2015 on national competitiveness, Resolution 35/NQ-CP/2016 on supporting the development of enterprises and the new Pharmaceutical Law dated June 4, 2016 effective from January 1st 2017, improves the healthcare industry in terms of improved access to medical care. Agreements such as the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EVFTA), the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) or the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) to which Vietnam is a member, will further enhance positive progress in the sector. Besides, guiding documents to implement the Pharmaceutical Law will be completed in the following months to resolve remaining issues in both local and foreign industries.

Ensuring a fast and sustainable access to innovative medicine

The expectations arising from the new legislation concern the sustainable access for Vietnamese patients to innovative medical products and the Government procurement ensuring high-quality medicines. The establishment of Foreign Invested Enterprises (FIEs) in Vietnam must be supported in order to guide the local industry into being a core pharmaceutical industry in ASEAN.

The new pharmaceutical law favors the establishment of FIEs in the pharmaceutical sector since it is necessary for accessing the most innovative drugs and techniques. Nevertheless, some grey areas remain as to ensure same access to the pharma market for foreign companies and local ones. Indeed, representative offices, the most common form of presence for pharmaceutical companies, are not given the same rights as other entities.

Depriving representative offices of their rights to contract, to import pharmaceutical drugs and vaccines and to sell them domestically, and even to conduct any profit-generating activities in Vietnam, inevitably impedes financial investment, development of local facilities and technology transfer. In order to greatly increase the number of FIES, clear and practical guidelines should be implemented.

Facilitating administrative procedures

The Vietnamese Government also exempted Local Clinical Trial requirements for some pharmaceutical products such as drugs or medical equipment. Local Clinical Trials required a 2.5 to 5 year-time to obtain a market authorization and their suppression in part is a great step to a faster access to innovative medicines. However, the text is unclear as to whether biologics and vaccines are entitled with this exemption especially when such an exemption would be contradictory to the EVFTA. Vietnam should respect what it has committed in international agreements to promote investors’ trust and companies’ establishment.

Another obstacle for Pharma companies’ establishment deals with license and visas registration taking place every five years; a heavy procedure when the renewal process can take from 18 to 24 months and must be started only 12 months prior to the expiry of the existing visa.

Circular 09/2016/TT-BYT issued by the Ministry of Health on May 5 2016 and effective from July 1 2016, establishes lists of drugs which must be procured through tender process. If clearly implemented and added to exclusion of the ban on foreign products in Government Procurement for originator medicines, this would help reach the goal of a universal access to medical care and quality medicines for all Vietnamese patients.

Solving Intellectual Property rights issues

The counterfeit medicine is a grave issue that needs to be embraced urgently. Vietnamese legislation is insufficient in terms of regulations on intellectual property and data protection rights. International standards have set up many mechanisms to preserve a safer environment for investment such as adoption of patent protection, an enforcement system or Regulatory Data Protection (RDP). Therefore, Vietnam should set up a mechanism of automatic granting of RDP as well as real raise fines and sanctions in case of infringements.

In Vietnam, rights holders (intellectual property, data protection) bear the burden of proof when claiming an infringement. Besides when submitting an application for patent protection, secrecy is not automatically ensured and must be explicitly added in the drug registration form. The Drug Administration of Vietnam receives the applications and is often quite reluctant to grant data protection for FIEs. Those issues constitute a drag for investment in the pharmaceutical Research and Development sector for both foreign and domestic investors.

Encouraging Health insurance development

Development of health insurance is quite new and launched thanks to Government’s initiatives. This explains the importance of public funds in the development of the healthcare sector and yet they represent a decreasing part in the funds. Indeed, private funds are taking the lead in investment in health sector as they are expanding along with the market. The agreements signed by the Vietnamese Government will attract more foreign private investors and accentuate private funds dominating facet over the industry.

Nevertheless health insurance system in Vietnam mostly relies on contribution of the people and, since a part of the population entrusts natural and traditional medicine over western medicine, this goes against a universal health cover for all Vietnamese people.

Outlook on the EVFTA

The EVFTA signed on December 5, 2015 and expected to entry into force by January 2018, is establishing new requirements and opportunities for both the European and Vietnamese market. It includes a specific part on the import and export of pharmaceutical products. For instance Article 14.2 Chapter 2 of the agreement requires Vietnam to create and implement legal instruments to allow FIEs’ establishment in Vietnam. In addition, this Article also requires Vietnam to allow FIEs to sell pharmaceuticals legally imported by them directly or through distributors or wholesalers who are not required to have a Good Storage Practice (GSP) certificate or directly.

 

If the Vietnamese legislation is responsible for certification requirements and process, the EVFTA creates a real influence as it encourages establishment of FIEs and their extended scope of activities. Therefore we can expect that Vietnamese Regulations will be adjusted to meet with EVFTA requirements thus creating a more liberalized pharmaceutical market in a foreseeable future.

Most important issues

–       Restrictions on the rights of representative offices together with the complex registration process are likely to restrain the inflow of pharmaceutical FIEs.

–       Regulations on Intellectual Property Rights protecting applicants and their patents would encourage the Research and Development sector and accelerate the creation of innovative pharmaceutical products in Vietnam. Besides, the question of counterfeit medicine must be solved urgently.

–       Development of health insurance is limited by its financing system and by the mistrust some people put in the western medicine. Implementing reimbursement of some medicines and medical acts would help encourage it.

***

If you have any question on the above, please do not hesitate to contact Mr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com, Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you very much!

 

 

ベトナムにおける弁護士オリバー マスマン「ベトナムでのM&A:市場分析の要約」

過去12ヶ月で最大且つ最も注目すべきM&A 取引
IT 及び電子機器
2014年6月、ベトナムの主要なIT企業である、FPTソフトウェアは(ヨーロッパで主要な公益企業の1つである)RWEグループの子会社であるRWE ITスロバキアを買収しました。従って、RWE IT スロバキアはFPTソフトウェアが100%保有し、FPTスロバキアに社名を改称。この取引はFPTの最初のM&A 取引となり、またベトナム国外にあるベトナムICT企業の最初のM&A 取引となっています。しかし、この取引値は開示されていません。
石油ガス、化学物質
2014年11月、石油ガス会社のSapuraKencana Petroleum Berhad (マレーシア)は国際入札手続き後に400万米ドルでベトナム南部から3ブロックのところにあるマレーシアの国営石油会社のPetroliam Nasional Berhad(ペトロナス)の総株式を買収しました。
金融
注目すべきM&A 取引は以下の通りです。
• 2014年12月、ベトナム・フィナンシャル・トランスファー (Banknetvn)はカード決済システムや銀行間システムを提供するスマートリンクカード会社(Smartlink)と合併しました。バンクネットベトナムは中央銀行が総株式の25%を保有するこの市場で唯一のカード決済会社となります。
ベトナム国営金融
• 2015年5月、サイゴン商信株式商業銀行Sai Gon Thuong Tin Commercial Joint Stock Bank(Sacombank)はSouthern Commercial 株式銀行と合併しました。この合併により、Southern 銀行の株主はそれぞれ保有する株式に対しSacombank銀行の株式を0.75取得。Sacombank銀行という合弁企業自体は定款資本を18.85 兆ベトナムドン(8億5600万米ドル)以上保有し、総資産は290.86 兆ベトナムドン(132億米ドル)以上となっています。Sacombank銀行の株主は93.7%の議決にて合弁に同意しました。
•2015年5月、the Mekong Housing Bank とベトナム投資開発銀行との合併が完了しました。
•2015年4月、クレディセゾンはベトナムで3番目に大きな消費者金融事業であるHDファイナンスの資本の49%を保有する為におよそ5億円費やしています。
•2015年8月、メコン開発銀行(MDB)は定款資本の面で国の5大銀行の1つになる機関を形成する為にベトナム海事商業銀行(Maritime Bank)と合併をしました。近年、海事銀行の定款資本は3億7380万米ドルでメコン開発銀行は1億7523万米ドルとなり、つまり新しい金融機関は定款資本が5億4900万米ドル、総資産は52億8000万米ドルとなる見込みです。
•ベトナム工商銀行(Vietinbank)はペトロリメックス株式商業銀行(PG Bank)と合併しました。PG Bank の株とVietinbankの株の交換比率は1株:0.9株となり、Vietinbank は同社の株2億7000万株をPG Bank の株式3億株と交換できます。合併によりVietinbank の総資産は25兆ベトナムドン(11億9000万ドル) から685兆ベトナムドン(317億ドル)に増加し、定款資本は3兆ベトナムドン(1億4286万米ドル)から40兆ベトナムドン(18億5000米ドル)以上に増加する見込みとなっています。
鉱業、メタル、エンジニアリング
2014年、ベトナム石炭鉱物産業グループ(Vinacomin)はベトナム石炭の定款資本100%売却しました。つまり、VP銀行への1人鉱物金融有限会社となります。この取引値は開示されていません。
医療、バイオテクノロジー、ヘルスケア
2014年9月、スタンダード・チャータード・プライベート・エクイティ(Standard Chartered Private Equity)は9000万米ドルでベトナムの農業分野でマーケットリーダーであるAn Giang Plant Protection JSCの重要な少数株式を取得に成功しました。
その他
小売での注目すべきM&A取引は以下となります。
•2014年8月タイのBJCは総額6億5500ユーロの取引値でMetro Cash & Carry Vietnam を買収しました。
• タイのセントラルグループはグエン・キム・貿易会社のオーナーであるNKT新技術ソリューション投資開発公社の全株式の49%の買収を完了しました。取引値は開示されていません。
• ビングループ(Vingroup)は ベトナム北部のオーシャンマート・リテールシステム(OceanMart retail system)を所有しているオーシャングループの傘下であるオーシャンリテール(Ocean Retail Company)の総株式の70%を取得し、またビンマートリテールグループ( VinMart Retail Group)に改称しました。取引値は2600万米ドルとなっています。
飲食
•2015年4月、マサングループ(Masan Group)2社の株式買収を発表しました。1社はVietnam French Cattle Feed JSC (Proconco) の総株式の52%で、もう1社はAgro Nutrition Company JSC (Anco)の総株式の70%を取得しています。買収はグループがSam Kim Limited Liability Companyの総株式の99.99%を買収し、Masan Nutri-Science Companyに改称した際に行いました。
•2015年5月、Filipino firm Pilmico Foods Corporationは拡張入札の為にベトナムのいくつかの飼料会社を買収。the Aboitiz Group の子会社であるPilmicoは2014年に2800万米ドルの価格でVinh Hoan 1 Feed JSC (VHF)の総株式の70%を買収しました。
• F&N Dairy Investments Pte Ltd はビナミルク(Vinamilk)の定款資本の11.04% に相当する1億1040万株を保有しています。現在、the State Capital Investment Corporation (SCIC)に次ぐ第2位のビナミルクの株主となっています。
• Mondelēz Internationalはおよそ3億7000万米ドルでベトナムの人気スナック事業である Kinh Do Corporationの総株式の80%の買収を完了しました。
不動産
• 2014年1月、香港に拠点を置くTung Shing Groupは 約1600万米ドルでフーニャン地区に所在するモーベンピック・サイゴンホテルの総株式の53%を取得しました。
• 2015年3月、ロッテグループはダイヤモンドプラザのプロジェクトの70%を取得しました。建物はは約60万米ドルの初期投資の恩恵を受けています。しかし、ロッテグループはこの取引で費やした金額を公表していません。
• 2014年11月、ホーチミン拠点の不動産会社ノバランド(Novaland)は約3兆ベトナムドン(1億4250万米ドル)の投資の恩恵を受けている4区のアイコン56(Icon 56)、ギャラクシー9(Galaxy 9)、また2区レキシントンレジデンス(Lexington Residence)を含む遅れているプロジェクトを取得しました。
• 2015年6月、香港に拠点を置く非公開投資会社のGaw Capital Partners (GCP)は、ベトナムの不動産プロジェクトのポートフォリオを取得しました。ポートフォリオは1億600万米ドルで買収され、Indochina Land Holdings 2 Ltd の下で残りの4つのプロジェクトから成り立っています。
•2015年7月初旬、マレーシアの不動産開発のGamuda Berhad の1部門であるGamuda Land VietnamはサコムリアルからCeladon City 及びThanh Cong JSC (TTC)を推定1.4 兆ベトナムドン(6410万米ドル)で買収しました。推定初期投資は 24.8兆ベトナムドン (11億米ドル)となっています。
• 2015年、ビングループは不動産、小売、物流部門において支配的なローカルM&A買収者となった。最も注目すべき追加案件は以下となります。
o マステリ・タオディエン(Masteri Thao Dien)は7500万米ドル
o ビナテックス(Vinatex)の株式保有30% が2600万米ドル
o Giang Vo Trade Show Center の株式保有90%が6900万米ドル
o Hop Nhat Express の株式保有30% は5200万米ドル
• 2014年11月、アメリカ拠点のGlobal Emerging Markets Fund (GEM)はベトナムの農場及び不動産会社であるHoang Anh Gia Laiの10%を8000万米ドルで取得することに合意しました。GEMは重役の役割を獲得し、将来的に国際市場で見込みのある企業リストを支援する予定です。
保険
2015年4月、カナダに本社を置くFairfax Financial Holdings の子会社Fairfax Asia Limited はBIDV保険総公社の総株式の35%を5000万米ドルで取得しました。従って、保険業界で戦略的投資家 となっています。
M&A取引の体制での主要な動向
ベトナムでは、M&A取引は通常株式取得または資産買収のどちらかの形で行われます。
外国人購入者による株式取得は一般的にオフショアの直接投資として構成されています。新投資家は以下が可能です。
•対象企業の現在の株主から株式取得または出資が可能(例、株式会社、有限会社など)。
•対象企業の新規株式の発行を許可(例、株式会社)。
•対象企業の追加出資が可能(例、有限会社)。
資産取引の場合は、外国人購入者はベトナムに新たな子会社を設立しなければなりません。
さらに、M&A取引は合併の形を取ることが可能となります。2つ以上の同業企業は別の企業と合併することができ、全ての資産、権利、義務、利益を合併した企業へ転送でき、合併している企業を終了することが出来ます。
2014年企業法はM&A取引の結果として投資家により使用されるビジネス構造のタイプを設定することが可能となります。さらに、2014年投資法はM&A取引を規制し、その取引に投資証明書が不要であると明確に示した最初の法律です。この変化は幸いにもM&A取引を通してベトナム市場に参入または拡大しようとしている外国人投資家が経験している不明確で苦労を終わらせることができると予想されています。しかし、これらの2015年7月から施行され、また施行細則がまた発行されていないため、これらの法律が有効になるのはまだ早いと思われています。またかつての企業法及び投資法の下でライセンスを取得している企業にとって、どっちつかずの状態で企業登録またライセンス改正が残ったままとなっています。この状況はM&A取引に直接影響を及ぼします。
過去12ヶ月での未公開株式の担保入札のレベルまた範囲
M&A取引の形での投資はいまだに非公開株式投資 と比較して最も一般的な投資の形です。ここ数ヶ月で、非公開株式資本はベトナムでの証券市場に続いており、特にバリューチェーン活動を行っている企業にあります。消費財やインフラが最も注目を集めている分野となっていますがただ、情報公開が制限されている為、完全に非公開株式の担保入札を評価するこはできません。
過去12ヶ月の 競合規制者のアプローチ
産業貿易商(VCA)のもとでベトナム競争庁は参加企業が30%から50%関連市場の合計市場シェアを持つ場合、その取引の通知をしなければなりません。VCAは合計市場シェアの計算が正しいか、また取引が禁止されているかどうか(つまり、ある特定の場合を除いて合計市場シェアが50%を超えているかどうか)を調査します。取引は競争法の基でその取引が禁止されていないとVCAが確認書を発行した際に行われます。
更なるVCAの情報はwww.vca.gov.vn/Default.aspx?lg=2をご確認下さい。
今後12ヶ月の間にM&A市場に影響を与える主な原因
国がより深くそして広く世界市場に統合することによりM&A活動に新たなチャンスを提供しています。
もう一つの要因は国営企業(SoEs)を民営化する政府の目標 が挙げられます。首相は2014年から2015年に432の国営企業を株式会社化する計画を承認しました。現在まで、企業の176が民営化しています。大手国営企業による初期公募はM&A市場に新しく魅力的な供給を作りだしています。国営企業による非中核事業の売却及び商業銀行の再構築はM&A市場をより魅力的にしています。
外国投資の奨励兆候は以下の通りです。
• 経済再起
• 外国人投資家により幅広いアクセスを許可する政策の改革
• 自由貿易協定(FTA)や環太平洋パートナーシップ(TPP)の締結
• 株式市場の跳ね返し
•上場企業の外国人投資家の許可レベルを増加する新規則
新投資法、企業法及びその他の法律や政策の導入により原則として投資や貿易、特にM&A市場に関する法的環境が改善しています。しかし、以下の要因がM&A取引に影響を及ぼしています。
• ベトナムのWTO委員会のような国際条約の地元ライセンス当局による異なる解釈及び履行
•異なるタイプの取引に適用される異なるライセンス手続き(例、外資企業または国内企業、公開会社または非公開会社、国営企業の株式または非公開株式の買収)
法的そして統治に対する障害やマクロ不安定性や市場の不透明性などが投資家にとって最大の関心事ではありますが、ベトナムにおけるM&A取引はまだ市場参入のための効果的な手段の1つとして期待できるでしょう。
ベトナムのM&A市場において期待される主な傾向は以下が含まれます。
• 銀行再編
• 買収及び反買収
• M&A取引を通じベトナムにおける日本の投資の成長
• 国営企業の改革
金融派生商品市場はリスクを防ぎ、株式市場の成長を後押しし、M&A取引を促進し役立つとされる為2016年に開かれることが期待されています。
上記の内容に関しまして、さらなる詳細やご質問がもしございましたら遠慮なくomassmann@duanemorris.comまでご連絡ください。オリバー マスマンはドウェイン・モリス・ベトナム法律事務所のディレクターです。
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