VIETNAM – SOLAR ROOFTOP – WHAT YOU MUST KNOW:

Rooftop PV power projects having a capacity of under 1 MW are not subject to procedure to amend the Power Master Plan. The investor only needs to register the connecting terminal with a provincial power company and provide general information about expected capacity, specifications of solar panels and the power inverter.
Rooftop PV power projects having a capacity of 1 MW or over must be included in the master or provincial Power Master Plan. In addition, they must obtain the license for generating electricity.
There is a standard PPA for rooftop PV projects between the seller and EVN in Circular 16/2017/TT-BCT by the MOIT. Although the Investment Law does not prohibit investment in the form of a direct PPA, a direct off-grid PPA between the investor and the buyer other than EVN is still pending for further guidance now being worked on by the Electricity Regulatory Authority of Vietnam (“ERAV”). Our contacts in the ERAV informed us that these new rules might come out in the 3rd quarter of 2018.
Rooftop PV power projects shall apply the net-metering mechanism using the two-way electric meter system. In a billing cycle, if the amount of electricity generated from rooftop PV power projects is greater than the amount consumed, the excess amount shall be transferred to the next billing cycle. At the end of the year or the termination of the PPA, any residual electricity generated by rooftop solar projects shall be sold to EVN at the place of electricity delivery (VAT exclusive) to be VND 2,086/kWh (equivalent to U.S. cent 9.35/kWh, the “FiT”).
The electricity price of the following year shall be adjusted according to the central exchange rate of VND over USD quoted by the State Bank of Vietnam on the last working day of the previous year.
The mentioned FiT only applies to part of the rooftop PV power plant having the commercial operation date before June 30, 2019 and shall apply for 20 years from the commercial operation date.
In order to meet this tight deadline we recommend to start working on establishing the Project Company now because the whole procedure might take some months.
Industrial parks and zones are good places to build solar panels because they have large rooftops and strong electrical connections already available. The Provincial Competitive Index including the Industrial Zones of Vietnam provides an excellent starting point for working on developing your rooftop projects. Please let us know if we shall send you the Provincial Competitive Index of Vietnam and the Standard PPA for solar rooftop.
If you have any question on the above, please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com . Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you very much!

Lawyer in Vietnam Dr. Oliver Massmann – Solar Power – Payment mechanism from Vietnam Electricity (former Electricity of Vietnam, EVN) to Solar IPP – What you must know:

1. The periodicity of payment for energy sales by client (EVN) to IPP

The IPP and EVN will together read the metering result on a monthly basis on a mutually agreed date to determine the power delivered and received in a month. The IPP will record the result in writing and send it together with the invoice to EVN within 10 working days from the result reading date. The payment deadline for EVN is within 15 working days from the receipt of the IPP’s invoice.

2. Frequency of price adjustment such that payment in VND reflects equivalent USD value

It is not clear in both Decision 11 and Circular 16, but we understand that the adjustment will be made at the time of payment for grid connected projects. For on-grid rooftop projects, the adjustment is made annually. Provision have been included in previous power project documents.

3. Mechanism for price adjustment (e.g. is applicable price adjustment is weighted average of adjustment period such that seller is not exposed to changes to VND/USD exchange rate).

For on-grid projects, the adjustment is made at the time of payment. For on-grid rooftop projects, the adjustment is made annually. It means that the FiT for on-grid rooftop projects remains the same in a year. The FiT for on-grid rooftop projects for the next year will be adjusted based on the announced VND/USD exchange rate on the last working day of the preceding year.

Please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above.

THANK YOU !

 

 

 

 

Renewable Energy Vietnam – Duane Morris – We get deals done:

  1. Describe the role of yourself/company/department within renewable energy in Vietnam. 

Duane Morris, as both advisor and advocate, guides clients through the complex legal, financial and political issues that pervade the energy industry. For both producers and policy-makers, as well as industry participants and consumers, Duane Morris attorneys help manage the dynamic challenges of the energy market. Our attorneys counsel our clients on regulations, transactions, litigation, project development, facility construction, financing, government relations and policy matters concerning energy. Our attorneys draw upon legal and industry experience with fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable sources to find creative solutions to meet our clients’ needs. We have been involved in several renewable energy deals in Vietnam until successful close of the respective deal. We can get bankable deals done.

  1. Describe those individuals/companies/government departments with whom you operate mostly with?

Electricity Regulatory Authority of Vietnam, Institute of Energy, General Department of Energy, EVN, Ministry of Planning and Investment.

  1. Explain the purpose of each of these connections whether they be formal, contracted relationships or informal relationships

They are formal relationships, where I either acted as the Chairman of the Legal Sector Committee of EuroCham, or work on behalf of our clients to connect with the authorities to get better understanding of the regulations in the sector and propose necessary changes.

  1. Describe any customs or habits that are features of doing business in the renewable energy industry? Likewise describe any customs or habits that are features of doing business in Vietnam. Explain how these customs or habits are used?

Build and maintain relationship with Government officials at all levels (central, provincial) is a must. Meetings can be formal or sometimes invite them out for lunch/ dinner. Do not go into too much details of your project or investment plan in the initial meeting. Save it for the next meetings. The first one should only be for “getting to know each other” purpose.

Vietnam has a consensus-driven system, meaning everyone has to say something. Any person has veto right. Thus, to make sure that a decision in favor of your investment is made, you have to gain support of every person who has the decision-making right.

In addition, decision making process in Vietnam has to go through many levels and thus takes quite long. Be patient then.

You should always set up a meeting some weeks in advance. Although some officials are able to communicate in English, it is advised to have a translator/ interpreter.

  1. In your opinion, who are the ‘big players’ within the renewable energy industry within Vietnam? This applies to private companies, national companies, government departments etc. 

EVN as the sole off-taker and its generation companies are the main players in the sector. Besides, the General Department of Energy, the Electricity Regulatory of Vietnam (both under the Ministry of Industry and Trade) play an important role in setting regulatory framework.

  1. Explain any rules or laws that dictate how you must operate within the renewable energy industry and within Vietnam. 

Wind: Decision No. 37/2011/QD-TTg, Circular No. 32/2012/TT-BCT

Biomass: Decision 24/2014/QD-TTg, Circular 44/2015/TT-BCT

Solid-waste power: Decision 31/2014/QD-TTg, Circular 32/2015/TT-BCT

Solar: Decision 11/2017/QD-TTg, Circular guiding the Decision and promulgating the PPA is being drafted

There are a number of laws and documents regulating an investment in Vietnam. I just name some major laws: Investment Law, Enterprise Law, Labor Law, Commercial Law, Civil Code, etc.

  1. In your opinion, to what extent does a hierarchy exist within the renewable energy industry in Vietnam? 

The development of renewable energy industry does not catch up with economic development speed. Although the Government has set out the increasing role of this sector in the energy development plan, I am afraid that the Government may fail to meet its target due to lack of support policies and bankable PPAs.

  1. Describe the main changes that have occurred to the renewable energy industry in Vietnam in the last 10 years. 

The renewable industry in Vietnam is very young. Indeed, it only started developing since the adoption of the Wind Decision in 2011. Following that Decision, the Prime Minister continued completing the legal framework for the sector by introducing Biomass Decision and Solid-Waste Decision in 2014, and the latest Decision being the Solar Decision issued in April 2017. The adoption of these policies was the joint effort of many relevant ministries, including the General Director of Energy under the Ministry of Industry and Trade, which was established at the end of 2011 to improve state management in the sector.

In 2009,  the first factory producing solar panels with total investment of USD10 million came into operation in Vietnam. Later in 2010, GE Energy invested USD61 million to establish the first factory producing wind turbines in Hai Duong. This was considered as a boost for the renewable energy market. However, by 2015, renewable energy only accounted for 5% in the total energy output, in which there is no wind and solar power but only small hydro power.

FYI, the first wind power plant came into operation in 2012 in Binh Thuan with a capacity of 30 MW. Recently, the first solar plant in Dong Thap also commenced its operation.
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Please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above. Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you!

Vietnam Solar Power  – Taking stock of Vietnam’s solar energy potential – What you must know:

With the latest official issuance of a Solar Decision, Vietnam has made steady progress on its solar energy potential. The FIT is introduced in the Solar Decision to be 9.35 UScents/ kWh for grid-connected solar projects. The draft solar Power Purchase Agreement has also been recently introduced in a draft Circular guiding the Solar Decision by the Ministry of Industry and Trade.

This webinar offers valuable insights into the newly formulated framework for Solar PV in the country and covers:

  • The roles and obligations for EVN carried forward by the draft
  • The bankability of the draft solar PPA, its guarantee scheme and room for negotiation
  • Insights how to make most of the opportunity for PV in the market – the 30MW off-grid rule – Getting Solar Power Project done in reasonable time:

More information of the webinar can be found here: https://www.pvtrademissionvietnam.com/webinar;

Please do not hesitate to contact Dr. Oliver Massmann if you have any questions under omassmann@duanemorris.com. Dr. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam.

THANK YOU!

 

 

 

 

Vietnam – Solar Power – Breaking News Update First draft of the solar Power Purchase Agreement released by the Ministry of Industry and Trade

Following the issuance of Decision No. 11/2017/QD-TTg of the Prime Minister on mechanism for encouragement of development of solar power in Vietnam (Decision 11), the Ministry of Industry and Trade released the first draft of a Circular guiding the Decision last month (Draft Circular). The Circular is aimed at providing regulations on formulation, approval and amendment of the national as well as provincial power master plan. In addition, the draft solar Power Purchase Agreement (Draft PPA), which is of great interest for many foreign investors, is also provided in the Circular as a mandatory template for future solar power projects with only minor changes expected to be permitted during the contract negotiations.

In essence, the Draft PPA is almost the same as current applicable PPAs for renewable projects. This creates bankable issues for solar projects and a hindrance to foreign investors planning an investment in the sector.

Feed-in-Tariff (FiT)

The draft Circular repeats the solar FiT for power output from on-grid projects and excessive power output generated from rooftop projects specified in Decision 11 to be VND2,086/kWh or US 9.35 cents/kWh. However, unlike Decision 11, the Draft PPA does not require that the conversion between USD and VND be according to the exchange rate at the time of payment.

EVN’s rights and obligations as the sole off-taker

EVN is delegated to purchase all power output generated from solar power projects pursuant to terms and conditions of the draft PPA within 20 years.

It is noteworthy that the Draft Circular and the Draft PPA list out certain circumstances where EVN is not obliged to purchase power as negotiated with the seller, for example:

  1. when EVN is in the process of installing equipment, or making repairs, replacement, inspection or examination of the grid connection of the seller’s power plant;
  2. when the transmission grid or the distribution grid connected to EVN’s grid has a problem or grid equipment directly connected to EVN’s transmission grid or the distribution grid has a problem; and
  3. when EVN’s grid needs support to recover after the incident in accordance with the provisions of operation of the national power system and the standards, technical regulations of the electric industry.

Unfortunately, the current Draft PPA does not include provisions protecting the interests of the seller in the abovementioned circumstances. It is quite risky for the producer if the output is ready to be fed to the grid but the connection is not available to do so. Absent a clear indication of whether the Draft PPA is a ‘take or pay” agreement, investors will find it difficult to secure and ensure the profits and revenue of their projects.

Dispute resolution

The Draft PPA allows either party to the agreement to bring the dispute to local courts for litigation and other energy-related state bodies of Vietnam (General Directorate of Energy and the Electricity Regulatory Authority of Vietnam) for mediation and resolution.

The Draft PPA does not provide for international arbitration to be an option to resolve the dispute. This could be a great concern for foreign investors, especially those of large utility scale projects.

Other key issues of concern

  • No Government guarantee to enhance the credit of EVN as the sole off-taker;
  • No provision addressing the risks of changes in applicable laws; and
  • The Draft PPA is required to follow a specific template, which is not bankable.

While the current Draft PPA leaves certain key issues unresolved, we note that this is only the first draft. Thus, it will be subject to potential revisions before its official adoption. We believe that with lessons learnt from the PPA for other renewable projects, the Ministry of Industry and Trade will complete the Draft PPA towards a mutually beneficial agreement for both the seller and the purchaser.

How to avoid EVN – The 30 MW rule

Considering the monopoly role of EVN as well as tough negotiation of the PPA, investors could still get out of this trouble. According to Article 1.2 of Circular No. 56/2014/TT-BCT promulgating methods to determine electricity generation price and examination steps of the PPA, the important requirement to negotiate with EVN is whether it is an on-grid or off-grid project. If it is an on-grid project with capacity of more than 30 MW or under 30 MW but voluntarily participating in the power market, the investor must negotiate with EVN. This means if the project is off-grid, there will be no requirement to negotiate with EVN. Therefore, if you are new to the market, an off-grid 30MW project or less is a smart option to test the water. Once you have built up your track record, you can go for larger scale projects.

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Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

 

 

VIETNAM – SOLAR POWER – AMAZING BREAKING NEWS – THE VERY FIRST SOLAR LAW – GOVERNMENT’S SUPPORTING REGIME FOR SOLAR POWER PROJECTS IN VIETNAM FINALLY OUT

 

On 11 April 2017, the Prime Minister officially approved the issuance of Decision No. 11/2017/QD-TTg on supporting regime for the development of solar power projects in Vietnam.

We note below some major points in this Decision:

Feed-in-tariff (FIT) rate

EVN is responsible for buying the whole electric output from on-grid solar power projects with the electric buying price at the point of electricity receipt to be 2,086 Vietnamese dong/kWh (equivalent to 9.35 UScents/kWh) (VAT excluded). This FIT only applies for on-grid projects with capacity of solar cell being over 16% or of solar module being over 15%.

There is no FIT for rooftoop solar power projects if such projects are not grid-connected. This is one of the differences compared with the previous Draft Solar Decision which sets a seperate FIT for rooftop projects when they are connected to the grid.

The FIT is based on the VND/USD exchange rate issued by the State Bank of Vietnam on 10 April 2017 (USD 1 = VND22,316). This FIT will be adjusted according to the fluctuation of the VND/USD exchange rate as specified in the standard Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) to be issued by the Ministry of Industry and Trade. We note that the solar PPA will have a term of 20 years from the commercial operation date of the solar plant and can be extended/ renewed based on regulations in effect at that time.

Investment incentives

Investment capital: Investors may mobilize capital from domestic or overseas organizations and individuals to invest in solar power projects.

Import duty: Solar power projects are exempted from import duty on goods imported to create fixed assets of the projects; components, materials and semi-finished products which are not available at home for the project’s operation.

Corporate income tax: solar power projects will also enjoy the same corporate income tax exemption and reduction as projects in sectors receiving investment incentives according to the current regulations on taxation. For example, corporate income tax rate of 10% will be applied for 15 years, tax exemptions within 4 years and tax reduction by 50% in the next 9 years.

Land: Solar power projects, lines and transformer stations connected to the national grid enjoy the same exemptions and reductions in land use, land rental as projects being entitled for preferential investment treatment. Such incentives, among other things, include exemption of land rental within 3 years from the operation date of the project.

Projects included in the Power Master Plan

The Power Master Plan, whether it is national or provincial, only applies for on-grid solar projects.

Projects of 50MW or below will be approved by the Ministry of Industry and Trade to be included in the Power Master Plan, while those of more than 50MW will be approved by the Prime Minister.

Thus, it could be understood that off-grid and rooftop projects do not have to be included in the Power Master Plan. This will save the investors the hassle of negotiating the PPA with EVN.

The Decision has effect from 01 June 2017 to 30 June 2019.

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Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions or want to know more details on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

 

 

Vietnam – Wind Power Breaking News – One of the first foreign financed Wind PPAs signed – Duane Morris advised on this transaction – What you must know

 

EAB New Energy GmbH (“EAB”), a German privately held SME with business activities around the world (Asia, Latin America, South Africa), engaged Duane Morris Vietnam LLC to advise on one of the very first privately financed Wind Energy Power Purchase Agreements for a wind power project in Vietnam – the “Mui Dinh” wind project (SPV el-wind Mui Dinh LLC) with a total investment value at final stage of about 60 Million USD.

EAB, in close co-operation with its subsidiary in Vietnam – WPV Wind Power Vietnam LLC, has received the Construction Permit for the wind power plant in Ninh Thuan province and will start the wind farm construction works in due course. Duane Morris Vietnam LLC advised EAB in the negotiation of the Wind Power Purchase Agreement with the Electricity of Vietnam (“EVN”) to connect into to the national electricity and sell electricity to EVN (the “Project”). The Wind Power Purchase Agreement was signed on 01 February 2016. This is one of the first signed Wind Power PPA in Vietnam and EAB is one of the first foreign companies with this success.

Given the fact that Vietnam’s wind energy potential is highly appreciated by investors in comparison to its ASEAN neighbours, and very good for building large wind power plants, the success of this Project is considered to pave the way for development of another 40 wind power development in Vietnam, roughly 513,360 megawatts.

This is the beginning of a sizeable privately financed wind energy sector in Vietnam.

Please do not hesitate to contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you want to know more details on the above or need our assistance in your project. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

 

 

Lawyer in Vietnam Oliver Massmann at Meeting with new Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc Sustainable Foreign Direct Investment is what Vietnam needs most:

We highly appreciate the Government’s efforts to integrate into the world’s economy, in particular it is worth mentioning the recent conclusion of important trade pacts such as the EU- Vietnam Free Trade Agreement, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, the Vietnam –Korea Free Trade Agreement. Foreign business community is expecting from the Vietnamese Government to stay course on its path of international integration and implementation of its international commitments. Foreign investment is an effective channel to develop the country, thus the Government needs to adopt preferential treatment for foreign investors in terms of policies, land and human resources.

But foreign investment cannot come at the price of unlimited environmental pollution and GDP should not be the only indicator of a fast-growing country. The current serious environment pollution in China as a result of its hot development in the recent years is a big lesson that Vietnam must learn from. The magic term for Vietnam’s future is “Sustainable Foreign Direct Investment”. Vietnamese Government should focus on encouraging sustainable development. One form is renewable energy. However, there has been done too little to move foreign direct investment forward in the renewable energy sector. Lack of sufficient supporting regime, low feed in tariff, project bankability are among hindrances to development in the sector.
But in my view the major hindrance for development in the Renewable Energy sector is the will of the Authorities in charge to really implement commitments of international agreements like the Paris agreement and make things happen in Vietnam. I conclude: Nothing will move without the real will to do it. We need the will and real action to create a sustainable framework for Renewable Energies and sustainable Foreign Direct Investment.

I am confident that the new Government will walk its talk to this regard.

Please contact Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have questions on the above. Oliver Massmann is General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

Thank you!

Best
Omassmann

Lawyer in Vietnam Oliver Massmann Solar Power Latest Updates on Draft Laws:

We have contacted the Department of Renewable Energy under the MOIT who is in charge of drafting this Decision. The Decision is still in a draft version (although it has been submitted to the Prime Minister for signature), thus can’t be published yet.

The final Decision will be issued this year but the exact timing is still uncertain.

Through our consultation with an official of the Department about the content of the Decision, for on-grid solar projects, the FIT rate will be 11.2 UScents/ kWh.

For on-grid rooftop solar projects, the rate will be 18 UScents/ kWh.

The rate in VND will be indicated in the final Decision based on the USD/VND exchange rate at that time and the MOIT will issue an Official Letter every year to adjust the rate in VND according to the fluctuation in the exchange rate.

Rooftop solar projects of less than 50kW will not have to connect to the grid. For those of more than 50kW, connection to the grid is required and an electricity operating permit must be obtained.

Please do not hesitate to contacts Oliver Massmann under omassmann@duanemorris.com if you have any questions on the above. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam.

Thank you !

Vietnam – Energy Sector – Direct Awards of Public Procurement Projects and The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement – What You Must Know

Q: Under what conditions can power projects be awarded without Government tender?

A: Power projects can be awarded directly without Government tender if the projects are not:
a. Investment projects for development using state funding by state agencies;
b. Investment projects for development of state-owned enterprises;
c. Investment projects for development other than those in a) and b) which are financed by the state; has 30% or more of total investment capital contributed by state-owned enterprises ; or less than 30% but more than VND 500 billion of the total investment capital of the project;
d. Procurement projects using state funding to provide public goods and/ or services; or
e. Investment projects in the form of public-private partnership or investment projects using land.

Q: Under which circumstances is direct appointment of an investor applied?
A: Direct appointment of an investor applies in the following cases:
a. There is only one investor registering the project’s implementation;
b. There is only one investor being able to implement the project as the project is related to intellectual property, commercial secret, technologies or capital arrangement;
c. The investor who proposes the project satisfies requirement of implementing the project with the highest feasibility and efficiency in accordance with regulations of the Government.
However, please note that direct appointment of an investor is still a part of a Government tender, meaning that this applies only when the abovementioned cases occur in the Government tender process.

Q: Under which circumstances is direct appointment of a contractor applied?
Direct appointment of a contractor applies in the following cases:
a. An event of force majeure such as disasters, war, change of the state policies, …which are objective, unpredictable and cannot be solved despite using all necessary measures within one’s own capacity. Vietnam is likely to face energy crisis in the coming years due to significant growth in energy demand. Thus, this is a good chance and foreign energy investors and companies should be prepared.
b. Bid packages need to be performed to ensure national secrets. National secrets are information in politics, national defence, security, foreign affairs, economics, science, technology sectors and other sectors that has not been disclosed or will not be disclosed by the state, and if disclosed, it will cause damage to the country.
c. Urgent bid packages need to be carried out to protect national sovereignty, national borders, and islands;
d. Bid packages of providing advisory services, non-advisory services, procurement of goods which must be purchased from previous contractors to ensure the compatibility of technologies and copyright which are unable to be purchased from other contractors; bid packages with research and testing nature; purchase of intellectual property right;
e. Bid packages of providing advisory services for making feasible study reports, construction designs which have been appointed to authors of designs of architectural works who won in a selection or are selected when authors have full capability in accordance with regulations; bid packages of constructing statues, reliefs, monumental paintings, art works in association with author right from the creation stage to construction stage of the works;
f. Bid packages of relocating technical infrastructure works directly managed by a specialized unit for site clearance;
g. Bid packages of providing public goods and services, bid packages with bid package price ranging from VND 500 million to VND 1 billion depending on types of projects.

Q: How is government procurement addressed under the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (“TPP”) ?
A: The TPP on Government Procurement mainly deals with the requirement to open up bidding to companies in other nations when a government buys products or orders a public works project worth over a certain amount. Governments undertake to timely publish information on tender, allow sufficient time for bidders to prepare for and submit bids, maintain confidentiality of tenders. The TPP also requires its Parties assess bids based on fair and objective principles, evaluate and award bids only based on criteria set out in notices and tender documentation, create an effective regime for complaints and settling disputes, etc. These rules require all Parties, especially Vietnam, in the context of China’s bidders predominantly win the bids with cheap offer price but low-quality services, to reform their bidding procedures and protect their own interests by disqualifying tenders with poor performance and low capacity.

Q: How to appeal Government tender decision?
A: The TPP aims at protecting investors and their investment in the host country by introducing requirements on non-discrimination; fair and equitable treatment; full protection and security; the prohibition of expropriation that is not for public purpose, without due process, or without compensation; the free transfer of funds related to investments; and the freedom to appoint senior management positions regardless of nationality.
TPP also includes procedures for arbitration as means of settling disputes between investors and the host state. It is expected to cover new provisions such as transparency in arbitral proceedings, disclosure of filings and arbitral awards, and participation of interested non-disputing parties to make amicus curiae submissions to a tribunal.

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If you would like to have a legal concept for direct awards or detailed guidance on this topic please contact Oliver Massmann under: omassmann@duanemorris.com. Oliver Massmann is the General Director of Duane Morris Vietnam LLC.

© 2009- Duane Morris LLP. Duane Morris is a registered service mark of Duane Morris LLP.

The opinions expressed on this blog are those of the author and are not to be construed as legal advice.

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